Nicotine - an alkaloid, which is synthesized in the roots of plants of the nightshade family, and accumulated in the leaves. Nicotine is found
predominantly in tobacco, shag, but is also present in small amounts in eggplants, green peppers, potatoes and tomatoes, as well as in the leaves of the coca plant. Nicotine belongs to the potent neuro- and cardio toxins. At constant contact with the substance in the body a person develops severe but treatable addiction. The effect of nicotine on the body leads to the development of serious diseases.
The principle of operation of nicotine
When ingested, the nicotine quickly spreads through the bloodstream to all organs. 7 seconds enough nicotine to penetrate into the brain. Nicotine can cross the blood-brain barrier (physiological protection of the central nervous system by microorganisms circulating in the blood). The dose of nicotine ingested with each cigarette substantially less than the amount of nicotine contained in the smoke. When smoking nicotine enters the body, significantly lower than in the use of snuff and chewing tobacco.
Nicotine entering the body, it acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, increasing their activity, resulting in an increased production of epinephrine, as well as the release into the blood adrenaline and noradrenaline, which in turn changes the emotional background of man, giving rise to a feeling of excitement, vigor, clarity of mind, a surge of strength, mental relaxation, a sense of lightness and happiness.
Effect of nicotine on the cardiovascular system is manifested as tachycardia, increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, which leads to disruption of the blood supply. Effect of nicotine on the internal organs due to a reflex action. The action of nicotine receptors also increases production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that causes feelings of pleasure and satisfaction.
Nicotine is enzymatically oxidized to nontoxic nicotinic acid (vitamin PP), but the human body does not produce the necessary enzymes for the oxidation. Therefore, a lack of vitamin PP may be observed even in smokers.
Effect of nicotine on the human body
A cigarette can comprise 1, 27mg of nicotine, which is administered intravenously with a lethal dose for man. Effect of nicotine alters the operation of all systems. Nicotine developing psychological and physical dependence.
Psychological dependence - a habit that is formed against the background of frequent repetition of an action. Psychological dependence on nicotine enhanced change the emotional background, which is a major factor in the effects of nicotine on the body. Smoker accustomed not only to stimulate the nervous activity receiving doses of nicotine (which is a physical dependence), but to the ritual turns into an integral part of his life.
The negative impact of the substance on the body manifests itself in violation of its basic operation systems: central nervous system, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. In addition to the formation of psychological and physical dependence, nicotine promotes the development of cancer of the respiratory system, ischemic heart disease, chronic bronchitis. Smokers exposed to the constant action of nicotine, more likely to develop thrombosis, atherosclerosis, as nicotine contributes to vasoconstriction.
Effect of nicotine on the body as shown in slow healing ulcers, chronic mucus hypersecretion. Effect
Nicotine promotes early development of impotence in men. Women exposed to the constant action of nicotine, have difficulties conceiving and carrying a pregnancy success.
Nicotine poisoning: the main features
Excess doses of nicotine in the body leads to poisoning. The main symptoms of acute nicotine poisoning include:
- Sudden dizziness, disorientation in space;
- Nausea, excessive salivation, vomiting, diarrhea;
- Heart rhythm disturbances, increased blood pressure;
- Respiratory disorder, a disorder of hearing, sight;
- The paralysis of the respiratory center (fatal).
Also highlights the chronic nicotine poisoning symptoms are:
- Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, larynx, nasopharynx;
- The development of chronic diseases of the respiratory system;
- Excessive salivation;
- Reduced gastric acidity;
- Increased colonic motility.