Diet in diseases
For successful treatment
most diseases requires not only medical therapy, and clinical nutrition management. It was developed therapeutic diet used in various diseases. Patients who adhere to the principles of preventive nutrition tend to recover faster, have less relapses of chronic diseases.
In many cases worsening of the disease is associated with the violation of the diet. Examples include chronic pancreatitis, hypo or hyperglycemic coma in diabetes mellitus type 2 hypertensive crises in patients with hypertension.
For management and clinical nutrition is important not only what foods you eat, but also the way they are cooking, the multiplicity of meals, etc.
The main purpose of the designated medical diet with the disease is exposure to its cause. It may even be the only treatment for this disease. This happens when irregularities in metabolism, kidney diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most diet and preventive nutrition combined with other treatments.
In any medical or care setting, as well as schools, kindergartens can be found examples of preventive nutrition.
The Institute of Nutrition have developed special medical diets. A total of 15. Some diets for diseases may include subgroups, as at the beginning of many diseases dietary requirements, its calorific value and the mechanism of cooking can be more stringent than the attenuation clinic or in remission.
Diets diseases under number 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 15 can continuously be followed by the patient, because well balanced in all respects: calorie ratio of nutrients, etc. In relation to diet number 4, 5a, 8 this can be said. They used short courses in the respective pathologies.
The main conditions and principles of management and nutritional therapy is the principles schazheniya body from mechanical, thermal or chemical effects of food.
Mechanical sparing means eating foods that have passed grinding, wiping, etc. Such food increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and promotes the normalization operation.
Chemical shchazhenie implies the exclusion of medical diet sour, spicy, salty, fried foods, because they are able to enhance the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and some affect exciting the entire body.
Thermal shchazhenie assumes eating food whose temperature is in the range of 15-65 ° C.
To comply with the right diet is also important in diseases of the multiplicity of the meal. Experts recommend five- and six-time nutrition. Between meals should be about 4 hours. The last meal at least 2-3 hours before bedtime.
Characteristics of the individual therapeutic diets for diseases
- Diet №1. Indications: stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, GERD, etc. diseases accompanied by increased secretion of gastric juice. The purpose of this diet - to ensure sparing the stomach lining, the esophagus and duodenum while taking food. Diet does not mean reducing the energy value of food. The multiplicity of its methods - at least 5-6 times.
- Diet № 2. There shall be at opposite diseases, ie, gastritis, accompanied by a reduced secretory activity, as well as chronic colitis. Its goal - is to stimulate the secretory activity of the stomach and increased motor function of the gastrointestinal tract, while maintaining the principles of mechanical, chemical and thermal schazheniya. Energy value of the diet therapy usefulness. Multiplicity meals 4-5 times a day.
- Diet № 3. Indications
the appointment is constipation in chronic bowel disease. Energetically full therapeutic diet. It includes products, increases peristalsis vegetables, bakery products, dairy products.
- Diet № 4. It is shown that a diet in diseases of the intestine in acute involving dysfunction. The purpose of this medical diet - reducing inflammation in the intestines and stabilizing its operation.
- Diet № 5. It is shown that a diet in diseases of the bile ducts, gall bladder and liver. In addition to the normalization of the function of the above, in compliance with this diet stimulates bile secretion.
- Diet № 6. Shown in gout, MKB with the formation of urate and uraturia. The purpose of this medical diet - normalization of purine metabolism by reducing the formation of the body in the metabolism of uric acid foods.
- Diet № 7. It is shown that a diet in renal disease: chronic nephritis, acute nephritis in the recovery period, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal disease, end-stage renal failure (chronic kidney disease).
- Diet № 8. Appointed obese patients. Purpose diet - reduction of body weight, which is achieved by reducing the energy value of the daily diet, mainly from fat and carbohydrate. Power fractional, 5-6 times a day. It decreases the amount of liquid to 1 liter and sodium chloride 5 g per day.
- Diet № 9. indicated in patients with diabetes. Aims - the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism in the body. The daily menu is limited digestible carbohydrates and fats refractory. Power fractional.
- Diet № 10. appoint patients with cardiovascular disease. With this therapeutic diet creates favorable conditions for the functioning of the cardiovascular system, reduces blood pressure. Power fractional, limited fluid and salt. Reducing the amount of animal fats and foods containing cholesterol.
- Diet № 11. It is shown that people with malnutrition. Appointed to the post-traumatic period, tuberculosis, etc. The terms of appointment is the absence of contraindications of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Diet № 12. Appointed in functional disorders of the central nervous system. The objective is the normalization of its work due to the exclusion of products acting on the nervous system stimulant.
- Diet № 13. It is shown that in patients with acute infectious diseases. It has the purpose of reducing toxicity, sparing the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the overall strength of the body.
- Diet № 14. appoint patients with ICD to form a phosphorus-calcium salts and phosphaturia. The goal of this destination therapeutic diet is an obstacle precipitation in the form of salts of phosphates by changing the acidity of the urine to the acid side.
- Diet № 15. This diet is in addition to patients who have shown diet and preventive nutrition, useful for almost everyone, because its purpose is to ensure patient well nourished. Especially important to respect the table number 15 recovering patients, and patients with chronic diseases in the interictal period.