Anthocyanins - pigment substances from the group of glycosides. They are found in plants, causing red, purple and blue color of fruits and leaves.
Content of anthocyanins in foods
Anthocyanins may be present in small quantities in different products (peas, pears, potatoes), but most of them in the skins of berries and fruits with dark purple color. BlackBerry - the leader the content of this pigment among all berries. But such berry plants like blueberries, saskatoon, elderberry, cranberry, blueberries contain a lot of anthocyanins.
The content of anthocyanins in greater varieties of sour cherries and dark than in sweet and red. Many of anthocyanins in the skin of grapes and in red wine is obtained from it. White wine made from peeled grapes, so it is less rich in these pigments. The content of anthocyanins determines the color of wine.
Studies have shown that bananas, although they have a dark purple color, are also a rich source of anthocyanins.
Physical and chemical properties of anthocyanins
Different color of anthocyanins depends on with which ion complex is formed by organic colorant. Thus, the purple-red color is obtained if the complex includes potassium ion, blue give magnesium and calcium.
The properties of anthocyanins to show the color depend on the acidity of the medium: the lower it is, the more it turns red. To discern in laboratory species anthocyanins used on paper chromatography or IR spectroscopy.
The amount of anthocyanins in a particular product depends on the climate and energy plant photosynthesis. For example, in grapes on the rate of formation of these substances affect the duration and intensity of the illumination of its foliage. Different varieties of grapes contains a different set of anthocyanin, due to mine and plant varieties.
High temperature affects the color of red wine, strengthening him. In addition, heat treatment promotes long-term preservation of anthocyanins in wine.
Useful properties of anthocyanins
Anthocyanins can not be formed in the human body, therefore it must be obtained from food. In a healthy person per day is necessary not less than 200 mg of these substances, and in the case of the disease - at least 300 mg. They can not accumulate in the body so rapidly cleared from it.
Anthocyanins have a bactericidal effect - they can destroy various types of harmful bacteria. This effect was first used in the production of red wine, which does not spoil during long storage. Now, anthocyanins are used in an integrated fight against colds, they help the immune system to deal with the infection.
According to the biological effects of anthocyanins like vitamin R. It is known about a property anthocyanins strengthen capillary walls and to provide anti-edema effect.
Useful properties of anthocyanins are used in medicine for biological production of various additives, particularly for use in ophthalmology. Scientists have found that anthocyanins well accumulate in the tissues of the retina. They reinforce its vessels reduces capillary fragility, as is the case, for example, diabetic retinopathy.
Anthocyanins improve the structure of the fibers and connective tissue cells, the outflow of intraocular fluid is reduced and the pressure in the eyeball that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
Anthocyanins are powerful antioxidants - they bind free oxygen radicals and prevent damage to cell membranes. It also has a positive effect on the health of the body. People who regularly eat foods rich in anthocyanins, have keen eyesight. Also, their eyes tolerate high loads and can easily cope with fatigue.