Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic group.
This drug is able to inhibit the biosynthesis of bacterial cell membranes, changing their permeability, disrupt RNA synthesis. Vancomycin is effective against staphylococci, streptococci, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, and some other gram-positive microorganisms. Are resistant to the drug are mycobacteria, gram-negative bacilli, fungi, protozoa, viruses.
Vancomycin tablets in therapeutic practice is not used as the drug is poorly absorbed after oral administration.
Typically, systemic infections are treated by intravenous administration of vancomycin.
Intramuscular injections are not applicable because this method of administration - very painful.
Vancomycin distribution in most body fluids and tissues is quite wide. After a drug enters the blood brain barrier poorly, but constant increases in inflammation of the meninges.
With urine output 80-90% vancomycin, and the rest - in the bile.
According to the instructions, Vancomycin is indicated for infectious and inflammatory conditions, when the use of cephalosporins, penicillins and other antibiotics can not be or do not produce the desired results.
The drug is effective in:
- infections of bones and joints;
- lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia;
- CNS infections including meningitis;
- endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart);
- infections of the skin and soft tissues.
Vancomycin, instructions Affirms be administered by intravenous drip at a rate not exceeding 10 mg / min. The duration of administration should not be less than 1 hour.
The recommended dose for adults is 0 Vancomycin, 5 g every 6 hours or 1 g every 12 hours.
The daily dose for adults should not exceed 4.3 g dose of newborn children is calculated by multiplying 15 mg (followed by 10 mg) of the drug on the child's weight in kilograms. The resulting amount of the drug should be taken every 12 hours. Children under the age of one month is assigned the same dose as the newborn, only with a time interval of 8 hours. Children older than 1 month Vancomycin applied every 6 hours at a dose of 10 mg / kg every 12 hours or 20 mg / kg.
Patients with impaired renal excretory function to begin administering the drug should be 15 mg / kg. then the dose should be adjusted based on the rate of blood clearance of creatinine.
Patients are able to uremia, which is characterized by the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood, it is not recommended to enter Vancomycin more than 1 time in 10 days.
Since tablets Vancomycin is not issued, the oral administration of the drug is possible only in the form of a solution. Adults be 0, 5-20 g of product divided by 3-4 hours, and children with the same multiplicity assigned per day to 40 mg / kg. Recommended dose needed to dissolve in 30 ml of water, and the solution should be drunk. Perhaps the introduction of Vancomycin gavage.
The duration of oral administration of the drug can range from 7 to 10 days.
Guide to vancomycin warns against such adverse reactions as:
- renal insufficiency;
- hearing loss;
- tinnitus, dizziness;
- Reversible neutropenia (decrease in the concentration of neutrophils in the blood);
- thrombocytopenia (decrease in the number of blood platelets);
- urticaria, pruritus, dyspnea, anaphylactic shock;
- lowering blood pressure;
- pain in the chest and back, redness of the upper body;
- after rapid administration - Steven-Johnson syndrome (redness and bleeding into mucous in the conjunctiva, urethra, mouth);
- inflammation of the walls of the veins (phlebitis) at the injection site;
- chills, nausea, dermatitis.
The incidence of adverse and allergic reactions increases with simultaneous use of Vancomycin drugs for anesthesia. To avoid side effects of vancomycin is recommended before anesthesia.
When he was appointed Vancomycin, instruction must always be studied as for some categories of patients the use of this drug can be dangerous.
It prohibited the introduction of Vancomycin persons with a history of allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to the drug.
Since vancomycin is able to penetrate into breast milk and placenta, the use of this drug to pregnant and lactating women is possible only on vital indications.
The drug should be carried out in a dark, cool and dry (no more than 8
C) place. Shelf life Vancomycin - 2 years.