Thiopental - neingalyatsionnyh drug for anesthesia.
Thiopental produced as a lyophilisate for the preparation of a solution for intravenous infusion and as a powder for solution for intravenous administration.
The pharmacological action of thiopental
Thiopental is a derivative of barbituric acid has obscheanesteziruyuschee and sedative effect on the body.
It produces a depressing effect on the vasomotor and respiratory centers, and on the myocardium. As a result of thiopental is a decrease in stroke volume of the heart and blood pressure at the same time increases the heart rate and peripheral vasodilatation. With the deepening anesthesia increases the extent of these changes.
According to the instructions on Thiopental, a single dose it causes anesthesia for 20-25 minutes.
According to the instructions Thiopental is shown as a means for non-durable anesthesia during surgical procedures, as well as for basic and induction of anesthesia, followed by other means.
The instructions to thiopental contain the following contraindications:
- inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx;
- organic diseases of liver and kidney;
- pronounced circulatory disorders;
- bronchial asthma;
- severe depletion of the body;
- feverish state;
- indicate a history of the patient or his relatives attacks of porphyria.
Thiopental sodium should be used with caution in diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Dosing and dosing regimen thiopental
According to the instructions Thiopental is administered intravenously, the children can be administered rectally.
For intravenous administration of a single dose is 3-10 mg per kg of body weight, depending on the age and condition of the patient. Rectally administered to warm infusion of children up to three years. The dosage is calculated from 40 mg for one year of life. Rectal administration of thiopental children from three to seven years, the dosage is taken at the rate of 50 mg for one year of life.
For adults, the maximum single dose of 1 g
Side effects of thiopental
In the opinion of Thiopental may cause
The following side effects:
- Respiratory system: bronchospasm, respiratory depression of varying severity, laryngospasm, increased mucus in the bronchi, with the rapid introduction - apnea.
- Central nervous system: ataxia, confusion, dizziness, due to dose-dependent inhibition of the central nervous system. In the postoperative period may impair memory.
- Digestive system: hypersalivation.
- Cardiovascular system: a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure. With the rapid introduction of possible collapse.
- Allergic reactions: various cutaneous manifestations.
The use of thiopental during pregnancy and lactation
The use of thiopental during pregnancy and breast-feeding requires the risks and benefits for mother and child.
Thiopental, due to the strong alkaline reaction incompatible with compounds having an acidic (vitamin C, epinephrine, phenothiazines).
According to the instructions Thiopental increases the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system, so before using it is recommended to introduce an adequate dosage of atropine. Immediately after the anesthesia is recommended to check the airway.
Subject to a ventilator drug can be used in combination with muscle relaxants.
In elderly patients, as well as violations of protein metabolism, kidney and liver function may increase the duration of the drug.