Theophylline belongs to a group of bronchodilators, blocking purine receptors and reduce the contraction of the smooth muscles of the bronchi. The drug stimulates the blood circulation in the heart vessels, relieves spasms of the bronchi and promotes the flow of oxygen in the respiratory system.
Structure and Composition
The main active ingredient - Theophylline.
Auxiliary components: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, talc, methacrylic acid.
Theophylline is available in tablets of prolonged action on 0, 1 - 0 25 g, 0 capsules, 125- 0, 5 g in the form of suppositories for 0, 2 Years
The pharmacological action of theophylline
Theophylline relaxes the muscles of the bronchi, has vasodilating and stimulating effect. The drug contributes to the normal operation of the respiratory center, eliminates the pain in the diaphragm and improves the functioning of the intercostal muscles.
With regular use of theophylline decreased the likelihood of allergic reactions in the respiratory system. The drug can have a diuretic effect.
The active ingredients theophylline normalize respiratory function, reduce carbon dioxide and increase ventilation.
Theophylline effectively increases coronary blood flow, lowers the tone of the vessels of the brain, heart and kidneys. Prolonged treatment expanding biliary tract, normalizes microcirculation and red blood cells become more resistant to deformation. Patients prone to hypotension, may decrease blood pressure.
Theophylline in conjunction with antibiotics and beta-blockers may increase the risk of side effects.
Theophylline prescribed for the treatment of obstructive bronchial syndrome different types (asthma, bronchitis, emphysema), pulmonary hypertension, renal edema, sleep apnea, hypoxia.
Instructions for use of theophylline
According to the instructions Theophylline should be taken by adults and children over 14 years 300 mg 2-3 times a day, drinking plenty of water. On the recommendation of the attending physician, the dosage may be increased to 500 mg two times a day. In patients weighing less than 60 kg, the dosage should be 100 mg two times a day (morning and evening).
The treatment is initiated with smaller dosages which are gradually increased. The drug is carried out at intervals of 2-3 days.
In accordance with the instructions of theophylline during treatment should be regular diagnostic procedures: blood tests, blood pressure, ECG, X-ray, to determine the level of hemoglobin and cholesterol. The therapeutic effect of theophylline is evident within 2 days.
At the same time taking theophylline and antispasmodics increases the effectiveness of treatment. The drug reduces the effect of antidiarrheal drugs. During the period of treatment must be careful in taking caffeine products, and antidepressants.
Contraindications to the appointment of theophylline are hypersensitivity and intolerance to the components of the drug, peptic ulcer disease, epilepsy, gastritis, colitis, arrhythmia, tachycardia, stroke, myocardial infarction, pregnancy, breastfeeding, children under 14 years.
With careful preparation is assigned in the elderly, in renal failure, atherosclerosis, bleeding in the digestive tract, severe circulatory disorders.
Side effects of theophylline
Theophylline may cause the following side effects:
- the central nervous system - dizziness, insomnia, headache, fainting, anxiety, tremors, confusion, epilepsy;
- of the cardiovascular system - arrhythmia, tachycardia, false angina, sudden drop in blood pressure, angina pectoris;
- on the part of the digestive system - nausea, vomiting, heartburn, diarrhea, flatulence, colitis, gastritis.
Chronic administration of the drug can occur allergic reactions - itching, burning, rash, dermatitis, fever, sweating, skin rashes.