Brief description of the plant belladonna
The plant belladonna (deadly nightshade) belongs to the family Solanaceae.
Visiting relatives in the countryside, you can hear these alternative titles this herb as a wolf or a mad berry, a sleepy intoxication, pesi cherries and other no less colorful and imaginative names.
Belladonna is not an exotic plant: it is widespread in the vast European part of the former Soviet Union. Medicinal plant raw material from which then made an extract of belladonna, its leaves are dark green, thick, with egg-shaped, with a special at the end. Collection of leaves is carried out during the flowering period. This should be done with caution and in no case do not touch the lips or eyes, because leaves are very poisonous. It should be noted that the fruit of belladonna - shiny dark purple berries - looks very reminiscent of wild cherries, which is fraught with the possibility of poisoning.
The composition and properties of belladonna
The main substances that Belladonna owes its useful both poisonous properties are alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine, atropamin and others.
Belladonna alkaloids possess analgesic, bronchodilator effect, relieves spasms of smooth muscle organs (uterus, bronchial tubes, and gall bladder, intestines), stimulate cardiac function regulate the tone of the digestive tract, bile and urinary tract. They expand the pupil and increase the pressure inside the eye, inhibits the secretion of endocrine and exocrine (gastric and pancreatic juice, saliva, sweat).
Atropine - a very insidious substance. At therapeutic doses, it has a stimulating effect on the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, but should exceed the prescribed dosage - develop respiratory depression, which can grow up to its full stop. Large doses of atropine cause mental stimulation.
The use in medicine of belladonna
The medical use of belladonna plant due to the pharmacological action of its main "driving force" - alkaloids (and, in particular, atropine).
Their analgesic and antispasmodic properties are used to treat stomach ulcers and 12 duodenal ulcer, chronic hyperacidity (increased acidity of gastric juice), gastritis, as well as diseases associated with spasms of smooth muscle pathology of the gallbladder and its ducts, individual forms of pancreatitis, intestinal colic, gall and kidney stones. Mode of action of alkaloids can be used in bronchial asthma, sweating and hypersalivation.
Atropine solutions are used in ophthalmology for the treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases (keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis), as well as for diagnostic purposes (research fundus detection manifest refraction).
Atropine is used as an antidote for poisoning holinomimetikami (acetylcholine), anticholinesterases and morphine.
And finally, a few words about the use of belladonna in medicine. Steamed leaves of this plant is used externally as a poultice to treat pain.
Contribution of belladonna in the pharmaceutical industry
In this chapter you will learn what products based on plant belladonna can be found on drugstore shelves. First and foremost is the competition - this in atropine sulfate, a solution for injection and eye drops. Given the toxicity of this drug, the pharmacy it is stored in a metal cabinet under lock and key, so when the home storage should also take care of his unavailability for the smallest households.
Next - an extract of belladonna (trade name - "extract of belladonna"). Available in the form of rectal suppositories. There is also an extract of belladonna thick, but it is - not for sale to the public, and for the manufacture of pharmaceutical dosage forms extemporaneous. The same can be said of the dry extract of belladonna.
Tincture of belladonna prepared on 40% ethanol. Used as a "solo" or in combined form, such as "Drops Zelenin".
Along with the leaves of henbane and datura, belladonna leaves are part of the anti-asthmatic drug charge. This dosage form is more interested in heavy smokers, as is used in the form of a cigarette.
Belladonna in homeopathy
Using the plant Belladonna in homeopathy has a long history. It began to be used in the medical field since its foundation. Currently, homeopathic medications belladonna are used in the treatment of nervous diseases, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, digestive tract and urinary system.
Dosages that use Belladonna in homeopathy are: a drop of tincture three tablespoons of water. Higher (1:30) dilution are used to treat epilepsy, migraine and enuresis.
As has already been stated, formulations including extracts of belladonna should be used with caution apothecary, so as not to harm your health. Even a small overdose cause dry mouth, mydriasis, disturbance of accommodation, palpitations, constipation, urinating. With an increase in the allowable dose increases the degree of undesirable effects: motor excitation with ataxia, dizziness, hallucinatory state, fever and photophobia. In this case, gastric lavage, activated charcoal, laxatives and drugs antagonists (pilocarpine, proserine).
Belladonna drugs should not be used in glaucoma, as well as young mothers during breastfeeding.