Streptomycin - aminoglycoside antibacterial drug used to treat tuberculosis and some other diseases.
Pharmacological action Streptomycin
The active ingredient Streptomycin, which is formed of radiant fungus Streptomyces globisporus, has a bacteriostatic effect.
The antibiotic streptomycin has a broad spectrum of action, in particular, it is active against:
- Streptococcus spp., Including Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae;
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis;
- Some Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus spp .;
- Most Gram-negative bacteria: Yersinia pestis, Salmonella spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Francisella tularensis, Klebsiella spp., Yersinia spp., Brucella spp., Shigella spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae.
Application Streptomycin effective in the treatment of endocarditis, which causes Enterococcus faecalis or Streptococcus group viridans (in combination therapy with vancomycin or penicillin).
Streptomycin under the instruction does not show activity against anaerobic bacteria Rickettsia spp., Spirochaetaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp ..
Streptomycin is produced in the form of a porous white powder for solution for intramuscular administration of 250 mg, 500 mg and 1 g
The closest analogue Streptomycin is the drug Pasomitsin.
According to the instructions Streptomycin administered for the treatment of:
- Endocarditis (in combination with ampicillin);
- Tuberculosis various sites, including tuberculous meningitis;
- Venereal granuloma;
- Intestinal infections, and urinary tract infections (in cases of susceptibility);
Application Streptomycin is contraindicated in the following cases:
- When hypersensitivity to active drug component, and also to aminoglycosides history;
- When organic lesions VIII cranial nerves;
- In cases where the disease develops on the background of severe chronic kidney disease with azotemia and uremia;
- During pregnancy, except in cases in which the benefits of the use of Streptomycin justifies the potential risk.
Streptomycin for instructions prescribed with caution:
- In myasthenia;
- When the disease botulism (to avoid disturbances of neuromuscular transmission and a further weakening of the skeletal muscles);
- During the period of lactation;
- In chronic heart failure, especially II-III degree of severity;
- When occlusive disease;
- In case of violation of cerebral circulation;
- In children and the elderly;
- In chronic renal failure;
- If the propensity to bleeding.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used intratracheally, intramuscularly, in the form of aerosols, as well as inwardly (in the case of treatment of infections of the gastrointestinal tract).
In intramuscular streptomycin administered in a daily dose of 1-2 g, and in cases of poor tolerability, with weight up to 50 kg and the elderly - 750 mg.
The daily dosage for children is calculated based on the weight of the body:
- 3 months - 10 mg / kg;
- 3-6 months - 15 mg / kg;
- From 6 months to 2 years - 20 mg / kg;
- From 2 to 13 years - 15-20 mg / kg.
In the treatment of tubercular etiology Streptomycin administered up to four times per day. The duration of Streptomycin - 7-10 days.
The daily dose of the drug in the treatment of tuberculosis should be administered at once, but poor tolerance allowed Streptomycin application twice a day. Duration of treatment - from three months.
Streptomycin intratracheally administered three times a week for 0, 5-1 g of less than three times per week. If the disease develops on the background of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease, the starting dose was reduced to 250 mg per day, but with good endurance can be increased.
Streptomycin regimen in renal failure is corrected, depending on its severity.
Side effects Streptomycin
In some cases, the application of the antibiotic Streptomycin may occur disorders of the digestive system in the form of liver dysfunction, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea.
Disorders of the nervous system often appear as:
- Peripheral neuritis;
- Neuromuscular blockade - sleep apnea, difficulty or respiratory arrest (usually when administered concurrently with muscle relaxants);
- The neurotoxic effects in the form of muscle twitching and seizures;
- Neuritis of the facial nerve as paresthesia, burning sensation in the face or mouth.
Furthermore, when using Streptomycin may develop:
- Ototoxicity - ringing, decrease or loss of hearing (in rare cases - to an irreversible deafness);
- Allergic reactions - redness of the skin, itching, rash, fever, angioedema;
- Nephrotoxicity - polyuria, nausea, loss of appetite, oliguria, thirst, vomiting. Chance of nephrotoxicity of use Streptomycin increases during chronic administration of the drug in high doses and in renal impairment;
- Local reactions such as redness or pain at the injection site;
- Vestibular and labyrinth disorders - dizziness, unsteadiness, discoordination.
In case of overdose of streptomycin toxic reactions occur in the form of thirst, dizziness, vomiting, hearing loss, loss of appetite, respiratory disorders, ataxia, urinary disorders, nausea.
In the application of the antibiotic Streptomycin should be considered:
- The drug is not compatible with other ototoxic and nefrotokschnymi drugs, including aminoglycosides and polymyxin;
- Streptomycin may reduce the effectiveness of therapy antimiastenicheskimi drugs;
- Neuromuscular blockade enhance narcotic analgesics, halogenated hydrocarbons, and other drugs that block neuromuscular transmission;
- Indomethacin (intravenous) reduces the renal clearance of Streptomycin;
- The risk of adverse effects increases with the simultaneous use of methoxyflurane.
Streptomycin refers to a number of antimicrobials prescription with a shelf life of three years.