Prograf is an immunosuppressive drug that is administered in the period after transplantation of kidney, liver and heart. It has inhibitory effect against cytotoxic lymphocytes which can cause rejection of transplanted organs.
Structure and Composition
The main active ingredient - 0 Tacrolimus 5 mg.
Auxiliary components: castor oil, lactose, magnesium stearate, cellulose, anhydrous alcohol.
Prograf is available as a concentrate to 1 ml ampoules for solution and capsules of 5 mg, placed in blisters in a carton of 10 pieces.
The composition of each capsule shell include titanium dioxide, and iron, gelatin and cellulose.
The pharmacological action of Prograf
Prograf acts at the molecular level on transplanted organs, preventing transcription of lymphokine genes. Highly active substance tacrolimus inhibits the cytotoxic lymphocytes and reduces the action of T-cells, as well as slowing down the formation of lymphokines.
Prograf composition effective immunosuppressive therapy, against which the graft is rejected less, unlike therapy with cyclosporine.
The drug is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and reaches full distribution in the graft within 3-4 days. The process of distribution of active substances has a biphasic type. Tacrolimus in the blood reacts with red blood cells.
In adults, the half-life of 40-45 hours Prograf. Prograf is metabolized to form 8 semi-active metabolites.
The drug is excreted in urine and faeces, and is eliminated through the bile.
Indications for Prograf are prevention and treatment of rejection of transplanted organs (liver, kidney, heart), including during a standard immunosuppressive therapy.
Instructions for use Prograf
According to the instructions in the form of Prograf capsule assigned two times daily for 0, 1 or 5 mg. Dosage is adjusted by the attending physician in accordance with the diagnostic indications. It is recommended to take the capsules on an empty stomach in order to better internalize the drug.
Prograf as concentration must be diluted in 5% dextrose solution or saline. The drug is introduced gradually over several minutes. After the introduction of intravenous solution vial must be discarded, even if it remains unused portion of the drug.
In the appointment of Prograf pregnant patients the drug can penetrate the placenta. And Prograf passes into breast milk during lactation in female patients.
In accordance with the instructions Prograf should be administered as part of combination therapy to prevent the development of malignant tumors and pathologies of transplanted organs.
During the period of treatment is necessary to constantly check your blood pressure, ECG and conduct a blood test. Also electrolytes should be monitored, a protein in blood plasma and functioning of the urinary system.
Contraindications to receiving Prograf are hypersensitivity and intolerance to the components of the drug, pregnancy, lactation, infancy.
With careful preparation is assigned in the elderly and patients with impaired liver function and kidney function.
Side effects of Prograf
Side effects of Prograf reversible:
- of the cardiovascular system - hypertension, arrhythmia, tachycardia, angina pectoris, heart failure, myocardial infarction, thromboembolism, shock, cardiac arrest;
- on the part of the digestive system - vomiting, diarrhea, gastritis, constipation, flatulence, hepatitis, gastric dysfunction, peptic ulcer, ileus, pancreatitis, hepatic failure;
- on the part of the circulatory system - leukocytosis, anemia, pancytopenia, hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, elevation of blood glucose;
- on the part of the genitourinary system - kidney failure, proteinuria, sexual dysfunction;
- the central nervous system - headache, dizziness, tremors, convulsions, anxiety, and psychosis, depression, nervousness, insomnia, hallucinations, paralysis, speech disorders, confusion and memory disorders, encephalopathy, incoordination, paresthesias;
- The respiratory system - bronchospasm, shortness of breath, inflammation of the bronchi edema, atelectasis, respiratory failure.
Mixed Prograf side effects - fever, fatigue, increased sweating, peripheral edema, arthralgia, and infectious diseases.
The drug can increase the risk of malignancies and pathological changes in the liver and kidneys.
Prolonged treatment may appear allergic reactions - itching, burning, angioedema, dermatitis, urticaria, alopeniya, acne, hirsutism.