Phenobarbital - antiepileptic drug.
Medicines Dormiral, Barbinal, Luminal - analogues on the Effects of Phenobarbital.
Structure and Composition Phenobarbital
Phenobarbital is performed according to the instructions in the form of tablets 0, 005 g (for children), 0, and 0 05g, 1 g (adult), and also in the form of a powder. Phenobarbital - the active ingredient of the drug. Accessories: stearic acid, potato starch, talc, sucrose.
The pharmacological action of Phenobarbital
According to the instructions Phenobarbital has antigiperbilirubinemicheskim, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and antispasmodic action. Phenobarbital inhibits sensory cortex, reduces the motor activity. The operating principle of Phenobarbital is not fully established, but there is an assumption that the drug inhibits the rising holding in the reticular formation and blocks the transmission of impulses to the cerebral cortex.
Reviews of phenobarbital indicate that the drug significantly enhances the neutralizing function of the liver and is often used to combat various intoxication.
Judging by the reviews of phenobarbital, a small dose of the drug has a calming effect, so the tool is often used in combination therapy with other drugs (vasodilators, antispasmodics) in the treatment of neuro disorders.
It proves a direct dampening effect on Phenobarbital respiratory center. The drug significantly reduces the tone of smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, slightly reduces the intensity of metabolic processes in the soporific effect.
According to the instructions, the following indications for use of Phenobarbital:
- peripheral arterial spasms and spastic paralysis;
- congenital nonhemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia;
- Chronic intrahepatic cholestasis;
- insomnia, stress, anxiety, fear, agitation, seizures of different genesis, tremors;
- alcohol withdrawal;
- Encephalitis caused by influenza, measles, rubella, chickenpox, whooping cough and mononucleosis;
- neurovegetative disorder;
- generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
- focal seizures in children and adults.
- Severe renal and / or hepatic impairment;
- hypersensitivity to the active ingredient of the drug;
- myasthenia gravis;
- drug addiction;
- the first and second trimesters of pregnancy;
- severe anemia;
- broncho-obstructive pulmonary disease.
Judging by the reviews of phenobarbital, a medicine often causes a paradoxical reaction (unusual excitement) in debilitated patients and in children. In some cases, prolonged use of medication can cause nausea, constipation, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, dizziness. Rarely - syncope, ataxia, depression, hallucinations, allergic reactions, hemolytic disorders. Prolonged use of the drug often leads to osteopenia and contributes to the development of rickets.
The recommended dose of Phenobarbital on the following instructions:
- as a sedative drug - po30-50 mg three times a day;
- as a sleep aid - 100-200 mg one hour before bedtime;
- epilepsy should be 50-100 mg twice a day;
- as spasmolytic - 10-50 mg two to three times per day.
According to the instructions Phenobarbital children should take half an hour before a meal twice a day. The recommended single doses of the drug, depending on the age of the child:
- up to six months - 5 mg;
- from six months to a year - 10 mg;
- from one year to two years - 20 mg;
- in three or four years - 30 mg;
- five or six years - 40 mg;
- seven to nine years - 50 mg;
- ten to fourteen years - 75 mg.
In single dose of one gram of the drug Phenobarbital following symptoms: lethargy, nystagmus, dizziness, headache, decreased or increased body temperature, blurred speech, irritability, loss or weakening of reflexes, sleep disturbances, shortness of breath and slow down, coma, ataxia, decreased blood pressure , bradycardia or tachycardia, pneumonia, confusion, pulmonary edema, oliguria, pupillary constriction. In these cases, a symptomatic therapy.
When receiving from 2 to 10 g of the drug Phenobarbital - lethal outcome.
The drug reduces the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics and sulfonamides, as well as antifungal effect griseofulvin; reduces the effectiveness of doxycycline, estrogens, corticosteroids, accelerating their degradation in the liver.
Simultaneous administration of Phenobarbital with atropine, belladonna extract, dextrose, thiamine, niacin, analeptics and psycho-stimulant drugs reduces the sedative effect of the drug. Phenobarbital in the treatment with reserpine reduces the effect of anticonvulsant medicament to enhance the effect of the same influenced nialamide, diazepam, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide.