Nitrazepam - synthetic psychotropic drug used in the treatment of sleep disorders caused by various reasons.
The active substance nitrazepama has expressed widespread, as well as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and central muscle relaxant effect.
The anxiolytic effect of the drug is in reducing anxiety and reducing emotional stress. Sedation from receiving nitrazepama reflected in a reduction in symptoms of neurotic origin - fear or anxiety.
Nitrazepam of reviews increases the depth and duration of sleep, reduce the impact of autonomic, affective and motor stimuli that usually cause sleep disorders mechanism. The drug can cause addiction and drug dependence, so Nitrazepam dispensed by prescription.
Nitrazepam usually begins to have effect within half an hour after ingestion.
Nitrazepam produced in the form of tablets containing 5 mg (20 pieces in a blister) and 10 mg (10 pieces in a blister) of active ingredient.
The closest analogue nitrazepama mode of action are the preparations dormicum Fulsed and as a solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection and pills Flunitrazepam-Verein.
According to the instructions Nitrazepam is indicated for use in sleep disorders of various origins, including frequent nighttime or early morning awakening and difficulty falling asleep.
In the combined therapy Nitrazepam is used in:
- Encephalopathy, accompanied by epileptic myoclonic seizures;
- Epilepsy in children from 4 months to 2 years;
- Endogenous psychosis, psychopathy, neurosis, alcoholism and organic lesions of the central nervous system.
Nitrazepam is contraindicated according to the instructions to apply at:
- Acute intoxication with drugs that have a depressing effect on the central nervous system, including narcotic analgesics and hypnotics;
- Acute alcohol intoxication with the weakening of vital functions;
- Angle-closure glaucoma, both in acute and in the predisposition to the disease;
- Swallowing disorders in children;
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure;
- Pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, and lactation;
- Severe depression, to avoid the development of suicidal tendencies;
- Drug and alcohol abuse;
- Temporal lobe epilepsy;
- Hypersensitivity to the nitrazepama.
Application nitrazepama in the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of congenital malformations, and prolonged use can lead to physical dependence at the same time with the development of withdrawal symptoms in the newborn. Admission nitrazepama just before birth can cause a child hypotension, decreased muscle tone, weak act of sucking, hypothermia and respiratory depression.
In addition, care must be taken when taking nitrazepama at:
- Hepatic, respiratory or renal failure;
- Organic brain disease;
- Or suspected sleep apnea;
- Drug addiction in history;
- Cerebral and spinal ataxia;
- The propensity to abuse drugs;
In applying nitrazepama in old age should be reduced dose and be careful.
As opiates Nitrazepam instructions on taking half an hour before sleep once:
- Children under one year - 1, 25-2, 5 mg;
- Children 1-6 years - 2, 5-5 mg;
- Children 6-14 years - 5 mg;
- Adults - 5-10 mg, the maximum - 20 mg;
- In old age - 2, 5-5 mg.
As anksiolitikticheskoe and antiepileptic drug Nitrazepam take up to three times a day for 5-10 mg but not more than 30 mg per day.
Nitrazepam under the instruction should not be used long-term without any indication. The risk of physical and psychological dependence develops after a few weeks of daily administration of therapeutic doses nitrazepama. At simultaneous reception nitrazepama with narcotic analgesics most frequently observed increase in drug addiction.
In the event of such unusual reactions, both acute state of excitement, increased aggression, suicidal thoughts, feelings of fear, difficult to fall asleep, hallucinations, increased muscle cramps and superficial sleep drug treatment should be discontinued.
Side effects nitrazepama
Nitrazepam by the reviews, especially at the beginning of treatment, often causes fatigue, slowing of motor and mental reactions, somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, uncertainty in walking, weakness, gait disturbance, decreased ability to concentrate, blunting of emotions. Several less Nitrazepam is paradoxical reactions - fear, aggressive outbursts, confusion, severe agitation, hallucinations, irritability, suicidal tendencies, insomnia and other disorders of the central nervous system:
- Depressed mood;
- Anterograde amnesia;
- Uncontrolled movement of the body;
- Myasthenia gravis;
Also on the guest Nitrazepam causes violation and from other systems in the form of:
- Decreased appetite;
- Increased or decreased libido;
- Incontinence or urinary retention;
- Agranulocytosis (excessive fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, chills, weakness);
- Abnormal liver function;
- Renal dysfunction;
- Skin rash;
- Dryness of mucous membranes of the mouth or drooling;
- Constipation or diarrhea.
With an overdose of Nitrazepam can cause serious disorders, most often manifested as a decreased response to pain stimuli, drowsiness, severe weakness, confusion, decreased reflexes, paradoxical excitement, deep sleep, tremor, collapse, bradycardia, coma.
With a sharp decrease in dose or discontinuation of nitrazepama may develop withdrawal symptoms, which is expressed as:
- Excitement, anxiety, or agitation;
- Nervousness and sleep disorders;
- Increased sweating;
- Spasm of smooth muscles of internal organs and skeletal muscles;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Acute psychosis;
- The feeling of fear;
Based on the instructions released Nitrazepam prescription. The recommended shelf life of the tablets - 36 months.