Morphine

 Morphine
 Morphine - a narcotic pain reliever.

Pharmacological action

Morphine hydrochloride inhibits the supply of pain impulses in the nervous system, causes euphoria (improved mood, emotional comfort arises irrespective of reality), reduces emotional pain assessment. The drug dosage is mental, physical dependence, has a sedative effect (in high doses).

Application of Morphine also leads to inhibition of the conditioned reflexes, reduce the excitability of the cough center, oculomotor nerve stimulation, to develop bradycardia, increase in muscle tone of the internal organs (such as the bronchi, causing bronchospasm), spasm of the sphincter of the bile ducts, stimulate gastric motility and accelerate emptying .

Morphine develops within 10-30min after its subcutaneous, 15-60min after intrathecal (spinal cord under the shell) and epidural (in the specific area of ​​the spine) administration through 20-60min - after the drug rectally, 20-30min - after an internal the use of morphine.

Product form

Release morphine pellets for breeding in a suspension for internal use, sustained-release capsules, solution for i / m administration, in the form of rectal suppositories, tablets, conventional and long-acting.

Indications

Morphine is indicated for strong pain arising from malignant neoplasms, injuries, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, after operations.

Morphine hydrochloride administered as an additional tool in conducting local, general anesthesia is used for spinal anesthesia during childbirth.

Application of Morphine shown when coughing (in cases where drugs, narcotic drugs proved ineffective), pulmonary edema caused by acute left ventricular failure (drug prescribed in addition, in this case), when X-ray stomach, gall bladder.

Instructions for use Morphine

A single dose of morphine instructions - 10-20mg (normal form) or 100 mg (prolonged form). The maximum daily dose - 50 and 200 mg. Children are 0, 2-0, 8 mg / kg.

Inside are 60 mg Morphine at 20-30mg once or multiple dose, equivalent to 10 mg intramuscularly entered.

To resolve postoperative pain after 12 hours after surgery, patients weighing up to 70kg are taking Morphine 20mg every 12 hours, patients weighing more than 70kg take 30mg every 12 hours.

When using morphine hydrochloride in the form of tablets, capsules, sustained release times take over two rows 10-100mg / day.

To eliminate the pain caused by malignant tumors, taking pills, depot, hoping to 0, 2-0, 8 mg / kg every 12 hours.

Pellets Morphine dilution suspensions are inside. Prepare and take the suspension as follows: 20, 30 or 60 mg of granules are diluted 10 ml of water, 100 mg - in 20 ml, 200 mg - in 30ml, mixed well and drink immediately (if at the bottom of a cup or glass beads remain, it is necessary to add water and drink). Take the instructions of Morphine every 12 hours.

 Morphine injections
 Subcutaneously administered 1 mg Morphine adult (single dose), intravenous or intramuscular injection - 10 mg (the maximum dose of 50 mg / day).

In chronic or acute pain administered epidural morphine (between lumbar vertebrae). In this case, Morphine hydrochloride (2-5mg) diluted in 10ml of sodium chloride 0 to 9%.

The solution for the long-acting injections administered intramuscularly. Disposable daily dosage of morphine bedrest - 40 mg (or 8 ml) at 70 kg .; with the active motor mode - 30mg at 70kg.

Morphine Rectal suppositories are administered only after the pre-treatment of the intestine. The initial dosage for adults - 30 mg every 12 hours.

Calculation of the dosage should be treated with great caution and to prevent poisoning morphine should be used under medical supervision.

If you have a poisoning morphine injected Naloxone. Additionally support the work of the heart and pressure washed stomach.

side effects

Morphine hydrochloride can cause vomiting, nausea, constipation, anorexia, biliary tract spasm, dry mouth, cholestasis, stomach cramps, gastralgia, hepatotoxicity (light stools, darkened urine, yellowing of the skin and sclera).

In severe bowel inflammation of morphine provoking paralytic ileus, intestinal, flatulence, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, constipation.

On the part of the cardiovascular system because Morphine may be tachycardia, lowering / raising the pressure, bradycardia.

There is also a side effect of morphine include dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, fainting, weakness, tremor, headache, involuntary muscle twitching, paresthesia, discoordination muscle movements, depression, confusion, nervousness, increased intracranial pressure with the possibility of circulatory disorders of the brain, insomnia, depression nervous system, restless sleep.

As a consequence of the action of morphine may also spasm of the ureter, the deterioration of libido, potency, diuresis, spasm of the sphincter of the urinary bladder, a violation of the outflow of urine and aggravation of symptoms in patients with cancer of the prostate hyperplasia, stenosis of the urethral canal.

The instructions also stated Morphine, which can cause allergies, which is expressed in facial flushing, skin rash, wheezing, hives, itching, swelling of the trachea and face, chills, laryngospasm.

In case of overdose, accidental use of high doses of morphine poisoning occurs.

The sticky cold sweat, reducing pressure, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, bradycardia, sudden weakness, fatigue, dry mouth, hypothermia, intracranial hypertension, cramps, psychosis, delirium - the main symptoms of morphine poisoning.

Contraindications to the use of Morphine

Morphine is contraindicated according to the instructions in the oppression of the respiratory center, with hypersensitivity, bleeding disorders (spinal, epidural) infections.

With care prescribe the use of morphine: abdominal pain of unknown origin, bronchial asthma attack, arrhythmias, convulsions, drug dependence, suicidal tendencies, emotional lability, alcoholism, gallstone disease, in operations on the digestive tract, the urinary system, the brain brain trauma, hypertension intracranial, renal failure, hepatic, hypothyroidism, epileptic syndrome, severe bowel inflammation, hyperplasia of the prostate gland, intestinal obstruction paralytic, epileptic syndrome, in the states after operations on the biliary ducts, cardiopulmonary failure, chronic lung disease, while the use of MAO inhibitors, Pregnancy, cachexia, lactation, in old, childhood, in severe general condition.





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