Methotrexate

 Methotrexate Ebewe

Methotrexate - an anticancer drug used to treat cancer, arthritis and severe psoriasis.

Pharmacological action

Methotrexate has antitumor, immunosuppressive and cytostatic effects.

The drug acts on the bone marrow cells of malignant tumors, embryonic cells, epithelial cells of the bladder, the cells of the intestinal mucosa and oral cavity.

Product form

Methotrexate is produced in the form:

  • Film-coated tablets containing 2, 5 mg of active ingredient in each tablet. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 or 500 units per polymer blister or jar;
  • Methotrexate Ebewe tablets containing 10 mg of active ingredient in each tablet. 50 pieces in the polymer bank;
  • Solution for injection Methotrexate Ebewe containing 10 mg of active ingredient in 1 ml in vials;
  • Concentrate for solution for infusion Methotrexate Ebewe containing 500 mg of active substance in 5 ml vials.

There are also a number of analogs methotrexate, containing the same active substance, as a solution for injection - Metodzhekt, Vero Methotrexate, Lachema Methotrexate, Methotrexate Teva and others.

Indications Methotrexate

According to the instructions Methotrexate is used for:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma;
  • Rheumatoid arthritis when other methods were not effective;
  • Severe psoriasis;
  • Mycosis fungoides in advanced stages;
  • Trophoblastic tumors.

Contraindications

Methotrexate for instructions do not apply when:

  • Immunodeficiency syndrome;
  • Hematological disorders - bone marrow hypoplasia, leukopenia;
  • Pronounced changes in the kidneys and liver;
  • Acute stage of infectious diseases;
  • Thrombocytopenia and anemia;
  • Hypersensitivity to methotrexate.

Pregnancy and lactation are contraindications to the use of methotrexate.

Also, if the pregnancy is the period of the drug, it is recommended to interrupt because of the risk of malformations and other adverse effects on the fetus. Methotrexate is not indicated for children under three years.

Methotrexate for instructions used with caution in:

  • Ulcerative colitis;
  • Previously, radiation therapy or chemotherapy;
  • Dehydration;
  • Infectious diseases of viral, bacterial or fungal origin;
  • Ascites;
  • Gout or nephrolithiasis in history;
  • Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
  • Pleural effusion.

Instructions for use of methotrexate

Methotrexate is taken according to the instructions depending on the disease.

  • When trophoblastic tumors - daily for five days 15-30 mg methotrexate at intervals of not less than 7 days, the rate of spend from three to five times. Or once in five days with 50 mg of methotrexate with at least one month interval. Typically, a course of treatment - 300-400 mg;
  • In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in the complex therapy with prednisone - 3, of 3 mg / m2 to achieve remission;
  • When non-Hodgkin lymphoma in combined therapy - twice a week for 15-20 mg / m2 or daily for 5 to 7 days, 5 mg / m2;
  • In rheumatoid arthritis Methotrexate is taken once a week for 7, 5 mg, once or dividing the dose into three doses at intervals of not less than 12 hours. The dose can be increased, but not more than 20 mg. Upon reaching the optimal therapeutic effect dose can be reduced. The duration of treatment with methotrexate artirita depends on the course of the disease. For children with juvenile chronic arthritis Methotrexate administered to 0, 3-1 mg per 1 kg of body weight per week;
  • In psoriasis weekly dose methotrexate instructions gradually increased from 10 to 25 mg to achieve optimal clinical effect;
  • When mushroom avium used twice weekly 25 mg methotrexate.

 Methotrexate

After treatment with methotrexate at high doses is recommended that the use of calcium folinate to reduce its toxicity.

Use caution while methotrexate or methotrexate Ebewe with other drugs because of the possibility of adverse side effects and changes in the clinical effect.

side effects

Methotrexate - cytotoxic drug, so it must be assigned a doctor who has experience of the drug and is familiar with the peculiarities of its actions and properties, because the drug can cause the development of serious and even fatal side effects.

According to the instructions Methotrexate can cause:

  • Anemia, including aplastic, lymphoproliferative disease, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy;
  • Acute hepatitis, anorexia, fibrosis and cirrhosis, stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, gingivitis, increased activity of "liver" transaminases, pharyngitis, erosive and ulcerative lesions, liver failure, enteritis, hypoalbuminemia, pancreatitis;
  • Headache, drowsiness, dizziness, dysarthria, paresis, aphasia, hemiparesis, convulsions;
  • Conjunctivitis, transient blindness;
  • Thrombophlebitis, pericarditis, thrombosis, cerebral vascular, pericardial effusion, pulmonary embolism, decreased blood pressure, arterial thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis and retinal vein;
  • Pulmonary fibrosis, alveolitis, respiratory failure, interstitial pneumonitis;
  • Azotemia, gynecomastia, severe nephropathy or renal failure, vaginal discharge, infertility, impaired sperm and oogenesis, hematuria, decreased libido, cystitis, proteinuria, transient oligospermia, impotence, dysmenorrhea, fetal death, miscarriage, fetal malformations;
  • Erythematous rash, urticaria, abrasions, skin itching, skin pigmentation disorders, photosensitivity, acne, alopecia, ecchymosis, ulceration and necrosis of the skin, telangiectasia, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis. During the treatment of psoriasis - a painful erosive skin plaques and a burning sensation of the skin;
  • Lymphoma, including reversible;
  • Arthralgia, osteonecrosis, myalgia, osteoporosis, fractures;
  • Allergic vasculitis, allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock, soft tissue necrosis, nocardiosis, sudden death, tumor lysis syndrome, a life-threatening opportunistic infections, including Pneumocystis pneumonia, sepsis including fatal, histoplasmosis, diabetes, cryptococcosis, increased sweating.

storage conditions

The drug is released only on doctor's prescription. Shelf life of methotrexate - 3 years.





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