Lorazepam - antianxiety agent used to treat panic attacks, neurosis-like states, and various disorders caused by stress.
The active ingredient lorazepam has a central muscle relaxant, hypnotic, anxiolytic, sedative, antispasmodic and antiemetic effect.
Lorazepam relates to means the average duration that is used to treat panic attacks and to reduce anxiety. Lorazepam under the instruction is not effective in acute delusional, hallucinatory, affective disorders, and in the treatment of psychotic disorders such as depression or anxiety associated with it, it is not recommended as the primary drug.
Long-term use of lorazepam may lead to a gradual decrease in tolerance and effectiveness, as well as to the development of drug dependence and addiction.
Lorazepam is produced in the form of solution for intravenous or intramuscular administration in 2 ml ampoules containing 4 or 8 mg of active ingredient, and also in the form of tablets for 0, 5, 1, 2, and 2, 5 mg.
Preparations Loram, Lorafen and Merlot are analogues of lorazepam and contain the same active ingredient.
According to the instructions of lorazepam should be applied:
- Sleep disorders, which are caused by anxiety or short-term stressful situation;
- Epilepsy and status epilepticus, often in combination therapy;
- Psihoreaktivnyh states and phobias;
- Emotional reactivity states;
- Psychosomatic disorders and headaches in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and other diseases of the internal organs;
- Endogenous psychosis, including manic and catatonic states, and states of anxiety and agitation in schizophrenia;
- Panic disorder;
- Acute alcoholic delirium;
- Neuroses and neurosis-like states;
- Symptomatic convulsive states.
Contraindications to the use of lorazepam for the instructions are:
- Angle-closure glaucoma;
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Acute alcohol intoxication;
- Acute intoxication with psychotropic drugs;
- Hypersensitivity to lorazepam or to other components of the drug.
Lorazepam in any dosage forms should not be used during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester and during breast-feeding. The drug is administered in tablet form since 12 years as a solution for injection - 18 years old.
In addition, lorazepam should be used with caution in:
- Suspicion of angle-closure glaucoma and sleep apnea;
- Impairment of renal function;
- Organic diseases of the brain;
- Severe depression;
- Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
Adults usually lorazepam administered in a daily dose of 2 mg, divided into 3 doses. In this half of the daily dose is recommended to take in the morning and afternoon, and the second half - just before bedtime.
Depending on the symptoms lorazepam dosage can vary:
- In practice, neurological - 1 mg to 3 times a day;
- For relief of excitation applied 2 mg of lorazepam in the form of intravenous injections.
The maximum daily dose ingestion of 10 mg, intramuscular and intravenous administration of a single dose should not exceed 4 mg lorazepam.
In abrupt cancellation of lorazepam may develop withdrawal symptoms, which manifests itself as:
- Increased anxiety;
- Irritability and increased response to auditory, tactile or visual stimuli;
- Gastrointestinal disorders;
- Headache and muscle pain;
- Convulsions and psychotic states.
Caution must be exercised with the concomitant use of lorazepam means, have a depressing effect on the central nervous system, and ethanol-containing drugs, because the combination of drugs can lead to aggression, psychomotor agitation, and pathological intoxication. It should also be borne in mind that nicotine decreases the activity of lorazepam.
Side effects of lorazepam
Lorazepam side effects of instruction is rare and, judging from the reviews conducted by the drug therapy is usually well tolerated. The most common side effects include disorders:
- Central nervous system as fatigue, muscular weakness, ataxia, vertigo, amnesia;
- Digestive system, manifested as constipation, dry mouth, nausea, eating disorders, and liver function, dysphagia, diarrhea.
Also, the use of lorazepam may lead to changes in patterns of peripheral blood and cause minor allergic reactions such as itching and skin rash. Among the most likely local reactions when administered intravenously for reviews include venous thrombosis and phlebitis.
In most cases, undesired side effects in therapy lorazepam observed at the beginning of treatment, or in excess of recommended doses instruction.
Lorazepam belongs to the drug list B with a shelf life of 36 months. Sold only by doctor's prescription.