Lidocaine - a local anesthetic.
Lidocaine is used for wiring, infiltration, terminal anesthesia. The drug has a local anesthetic, anti-arrhythmic action.
As the anesthetic drug effect due to inhibition of nerve conduction by blocking the sodium channels in the nerve fibers and endings. Lidocaine significantly exceeds procaine, its action is faster and more long-lasting it - to 75min (in conjunction with epinephrine - more than two hours). Lidocaine when applied topically dilates blood vessels, local irritating action does not render.
The antiarrhythmic effect of the drug due to the ability to increase the permeability of membranes for potassium, to block sodium channels to stabilize cell membranes.
Lidocaine has no significant effect on the contractility of the myocardium conductivity (only effective at high doses).
Level absorbability Lidocaine local application dosage depends on the means and the processing site (e.g., lidocaine mucous absorbed better than on the skin).
After intramuscular injections of lidocaine reaches the maximum concentration after 5-15min after injection.
Release of lidocaine spray lidocaine ampoules (with a solution for injections).
Injections Lidocaine 2% is used for local anesthesia in dentistry, surgery, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, to block nerve plexus, peripheral nerves in patients with pain.
Ampulah10% lidocaine anesthesia is used for applications in the form of mucous in the ENT practice, gynecology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, stomatology in operations, diagnostic procedures. Apply 10% solution and like antiarrhythmic agent.
Lidocaine spray is used in dentistry to remove baby teeth, tartar, fixing dental crowns of other manipulations requiring short anesthesia; in otolaryngology - for tonsillectomy, the truncation of nasal polyps, septum piercing pain relief process and the maxillary sinus lavage.
Lidocaine Spray is effective in carrying out diagnostic procedures (introduction of gastroduodenal probe replacement tracheal tube) for anesthesia of the pharynx.
In gynecology spray is used when removing sutures, dissection of the female perineum during childbirth, the operations on the cervix.
In dermatology, the spray is used for pain mucous membranes, skin during minor surgical procedures.
Lidocaine is contraindicated in the instructions for the blockade of the atrioventricular 2, third degree heart failure 2, third degree, bradycardia, hypotension arterial, cardiogenic shock, a complete transverse heart block, porphyria, myasthenia gravis, renal, liver disease, hypovolemia, glaucoma (eye for injection ), hypersensitivity lactation pregnancy.
Lidocaine Spray with caution appoint debilitated elderly patients, children, patients with epilepsy, in shock, bradycardia, pathology of the liver, conduction disorders, pregnancy. During lactation, the spray can be applied only in the recommended dosages.
Instructions for use Lidocaine
Before using lidocaine for instructions allergy tests should be conducted to identify possible sensitivity to the drug. If there is swelling or redness, to use lidocaine for anesthesia impossible.
A solution of 2% Lidocaine (ampoules) for subcutaneous, intramuscular, conduction anesthesia, instillation in the conjunctival sac, mucous processing.
Dosage is individual, but the instructions are listed Lidocaine average dosage: for conduction anesthesia used 100-200mg means (not more than 200 mg) for pain nose, ears, fingers - 40-60mg of the drug.
In the appointment of lidocaine injections to achieve maximum therapeutic effect is further prescribed epinephrine (unless contraindicated).
In ophthalmology dropped to six drops of the solution, burying two drops every 30-60sek. Usually 4-6kap. One eye is sufficient for anesthesia prior to operations, diagnostic procedures.
For terminal anesthesia of the maximum permissible dose of lidocaine on the instructions - 20ml. The treatment - 15-30min.
When anesthesia for children, the total dose should not exceed 3 mg per kg body weight of the child.
A solution of 10% Lidocaine (ampoules) administered intramuscularly and used in the form of applications. The permissible amount of lidocaine for applications - 2ml.
To stop the arrhythmic episode makes an injection intramuscular Lidocaine - 200-400mg. Ate bout is stopped, three hours doing repeated injections.
When an arrhythmia can be administered 1, 2% solution intravenously - 50-100mg, then according to the instructions of lidocaine administered intramuscularly.
Applying Lidocaine in ampoules 2 and 10% should monitor the ECG, to refrain from the injection site disinfection solutions with heavy metals in the composition.
In appointing agents in high doses to prick take barbiturates.
Lidocaine Spray is used only locally. Spray the drug from a short distance on the spot, which requires anesthesia, avoiding his eyes, the respiratory tract.
With irrigation mouth because of lower sensitivity should be careful not to damage teeth tongue.
In dentistry, dermatology apply 1-3 doses of 10% Lidocaine; in otolaryngology, craniofacial surgery - 1-4 doses of 10% Lidocaine; for endoscopic examination - 2-3 doses of 10% solution; gynecology - 4-5 doses (while in obstetric practice is allowed to use up to 20 doses of 10% solution).
When processing large areas, you can use a tampon, irrigation lidocaine from balllonchika.
Similarly recommend the use of spray during anesthesia for children (riding "baby" dose - 3 mg per kg of body weight).
After the drug may experience weakness, headache, nystagmus, fatigue, euphoria, photophobia, hearing loss, numbness of the tongue, mouth, drowsiness, nightmares, diplopia (double vision), violation of rhythm and conduction of the heart, heart block shear, pressure reduction, chest pain, paresthesia, paralysis of the respiratory muscles, impaired sensitivity, seizures, tremors.
Lidocaine at high doses can lead to heart block, collapse, cardiac arrest.
Also, the drug can cause shortness of breath, sleep apnea, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, dyspnea, urticaria, anaphylactic shock, nausea, vomiting, decreased body temperature, feeling of fever, chills, numbness, pain at the site where injected lidocaine injections.
Spray Lidocaine can cause: burning sensation, allergic reactions, lowering the pressure, heart attack, depression, drowsiness, anxiety, loss of consciousness, spasms, respiratory paralysis, irritability