Klaforan - a semi-synthetic antibacterial drug of the cephalosporin group of III generation for parenteral administration.
International nonproprietary name - cefotaxime.
Structure and Composition klaforan
Klaforan produced in powder form for the preparation of intravenous or intramuscular injection. White powder (yellowish tint allowed) This preparation is carried out in glass vials of 1 g Each vial is packed in a cardboard box with instructions for use.
In 1d klaforan contains 1, 048 g of the sodium salt of cefotaxime.
According to the instructions klaforan has a bactericidal effect, resistant to β-laktomaz (enzymes that are released by microorganisms and destroying antibiotics). This broad-spectrum antibiotic and are sensitive to it many microorganisms (Escherichia coli, some strains Klebsiella, enterobacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, and others.).
According to his instructions klaforan resistant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium difitsile, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some other microorganisms.
Following intravenous administration of 1 g of claforan after 5 minutes in the blood was the maximum concentration of the drug. Following intramuscular administration of the maximum drug concentration in the blood was 30 minutes after administration. The half-life for klaforan instruction is 1 hour after intravenous administration, and 1 and 5 hours after intramuscular administration. Patients elderly half-life is increased to 5 hours.
Klaforan used to treat infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to the drug.
This antimicrobial is used in:
- respiratory infections (bronchitis, pneumonia and others.);
- Urinary tract infection (pyelonephritis, cystitis, and purulent etc.).
- endocarditis, myocarditis;
- intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis, etc.);
- meningitis, encephalitis, and other infectious diseases of the nervous system;
- Infectious diseases of the skin and soft tissues (erysipelas, cellulitis, abscesses, and others.);
- Infectious diseases of the joints and bones (osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and others.);
- septicemia, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS);
- to prevent infection after surgery on the digestive tract after urological and gynecological operations.
In the opinion of klaforan very good for gonorrhea and is widely used venereologists.
Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.
Application klaforan during pregnancy and lactation
According to the instructions, klaforan crosses the placenta. Clinical studies in animals have not revealed teratogenic effects (drug does not cause malformations in the fetus). The use of this antibiotic is possible only under the condition that the potential benefits of klaforan higher than the risk.
This antibiotic passes into breast milk, so when you use breast-feeding should be discontinued.
Dosing and Administration
According to the instructions, klaforan administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Before the introduction of the drug is diluted in sterile water (4 ml) and a solution of 1% lidocaine - for intramuscular injection. Introduction of the drug contraindicated with lidocaine children under 2, 5 years. When intravenously klaforan dissolved in sterile water or infusion solution.
In uncomplicated infections klaforan recommended 1-2 grams administered intramuscularly 2-3 times a day. The maximum daily dose of 6 g
In severe infections the drug is recommended at a dose of 2 g daily dose can be increased to 8 g
In patients with impaired renal function Dosage adjustment klaforan, in accordance with the level of blood creatinine.
In children weighing up to 50 kg a daily dose of 50-100 mg / kg body weight. The daily dose in this case should not exceed 2 g
The duration of treatment with this drug is determined individually depending on the severity of the disease. Review klaforan typically used in therapy in average 7-14 days.
Side effects klaforan
According to the instructions klaforan can cause side effects, most often caused allergic reactions (urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm). Very rarely can develop complications such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic skin necrosis, erythema multiforme. From the digestive system can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. A special form of complication is pseudomembranous colitis (a form of enterocolitis with diarrhea and intestinal bleeding). Liver reactions are possible in the form of increased levels of transaminases (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin.
From the hematopoietic system can be marked neutropenia (decrease in the number of blood neutrophils). Rarely may develop agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia.
Cardio - vascular system sometimes noted the occurrence of arrhythmias (after the introduction of the jet through a central venous catheter).
On the part of the central nervous system may cause encephalopathy, this is especially true for patients with symptoms of renal failure.
In the opinion of klaforan may rarely cause inflammation at the injection site (post-injection abscesses, phlebitis). This is usually due to the violation of the art of administration.
After 10 days of therapy Klaforanom should monitor blood count and neutropenia in case of treatment with this drug should be discontinued.
When using high doses of this antibiotic there is a risk of reversible encephalopathy. There is no specific antidote.
Interaction klaforan with other drugs
Klaforan can potentiate the nephrotoxic effect of the drugs which have nephrotoxicity. This antibiotic should not be confused with other antimicrobial drugs in the same syringe (or one infusion solution).
Klaforan suitable for infusion solutions: 0, 9% sodium chloride solution, sterile water, 5% dextrose, Ringer's solution.
In appointing klaforan should carefully collect allergic history (presence of a diathesis, hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics). It should take into account the existence of cross-allergy between penicillins and cephalosporins (5-10% of cases).
Pseudomembranous colitis may occur during the first weeks of treatment with this drug, it appears prolonged diarrhea and intoxication. The diagnosis requires confirmation by colonoscopy and histological examination. This complication is very serious and requires immediate cancellation klaforan and destination vancomycin in combination with metronidazole.
Klaforan analogues are Klafotaksim, Oritaks, Taltsef, Tsefabol, Tsefosin, cefotaxime, Tsetaks. Before replacing analogue klaforan should consult a doctor.