Indomethacin - pharmacological agents from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat inflammatory diseases accompanied by severe pain.
Structure and Composition
The active ingredient - indomethacin. Indomethacin produced in the form of tablets retard (retard) 75 mg in the form of an ointment for topical application.
1 tablet contains instructions for indomethacin 75 mg indomethacin and auxiliary components (microcrystalline cellulose, potato starch, a copolymer of methacrylic acid, magnesium stearate, talc). Tablets indomethacin white (yellowish tint is allowed), the surface of the flat.
In 1 g of indomethacin ointment contains 50 mg of active substance. Available ointment in tubes of 30 g
The pharmacological action of indomethacin
According to the instructions indomethacin has an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect. Indomethacin inhibits cyclo-oxygenase activity (the enzyme responsible for the formation of the inflammatory process), and reduces the synthesis of prostaglandins (which are responsible for the onset of pain, fever and swelling in inflammation). Also, indomethacin has anticoagulant activity.
In diseases of the joints indomethacin reduces pain, reduces swelling and decreases the inflammatory changes.
According to the instructions indomethacin it is rapidly absorbed in the body. Its bioavailability is high (almost 98%). The drug is mainly metabolized by the liver. Indomethacin displayed 70% and 30% of the kidneys through the intestines. The drug passes into breast milk.
- post-traumatic and inflammatory arthritis;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- gouty arthritis;
- Ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis) and other rheumatic and inflammatory diseases of the spine;
This drug can not be used for self-treatment, its use is possible only under medical supervision.
Contraindications to the use of indomethacin
This drug has a rather extensive contraindications. You must read the instructions prior to use.
According to the instructions indomethacin is contraindicated in the following conditions:
- clotting disorders (hemophilia, a bleeding tendency and others.);
- congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system (coarctation of the aorta, pulmonary atresia, tetralogy of Fallot);
- hypersensitivity to active substances or other ingredients;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer (as well as erosive lesions of the mucous of the digestive tract);
- severe degree of renal or hepatic failure, cirrhosis of the liver;
- inflammatory bowel disease in acute (chronic colitis, Crohn's disease, and others.);
- a history of hypersensitivity (urticaria, bronchoconstriction, rhinitis) for administration of drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen and others.);
- hyperkalemia (laboratory-confirmed);
- age 18 years.
With indomethacin caution should be used in coronary heart disease (CHD), dysfunction of hematopoiesis (anemia, leukopenia, and others.), Severe heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, peripheral artery disease (atherosclerosis of vessels of lower extremities, etc..). Also, caution should be used with indomethacin soon after surgery, when specifying a history of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, alcohol abuse, severe somatic diseases. At some treatment drugs (anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids, serotonin reuptake inhibitors), indomethacin should be used in exceptional cases and only under medical supervision.
Instructions indomethacin: Dosage and administration
According to the instructions indomethacin tablets should be taken orally, during a meal (or immediately after), drinking water or milk. Adults are usually given 1-2 tablets per day (depending on the severity of the disease and tolerability). The maximum daily dose of 150 mg indomethacin. The duration of treatment is determined by the physician individually for each patient.
Indomethacin ointment to be applied topically to the affected area with a thin layer of joints and strongly rubbed into the skin, it is recommended to use the ointment up to 4 times a day. Duration of treatment appointed the doctor.
Side effects of indomethacin
Review indomethacin often causes side effects, most commonly from the digestive tract. These side effects include abdominal pain, nausea, heartburn, loss of appetite, diarrhea, increased values of liver enzymes (ALT, AST), gastrointestinal mucosal erosion (including complicated by bleeding and perforation).
From the nervous system may occur headaches, insomnia, dizziness, irritability, fatigue, depression. From the senses, while taking indomethacin on responses can occur: the taste, hearing loss, noise, conjunctivitis, blurred visual images, corneal opacity. Cardio - vascular system may develop side effects such as the appearance of signs of heart failure, tachycardia, arrhythmias, the appearance of edema, increased blood pressure.
From the urinary system, such reactions may occur as proteinuria (the appearance of protein in the urine), hematuria (the appearance of red blood cells in the urine), nephrotic syndrome, renal failure. From the hematopoietic system may occur: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, the development of bleeding (gastrointestinal, uterine, hemorrhoids, and others.).
Also, when using indomethacin, allergic reactions such as skin rash, urticaria, bronchospasm, angioedema.
In the opinion of indomethacin often cause adverse reactions when taking the tablets of the drug ointment for topical use rarely gives these complications.
Overdose symptoms indomethacin: nausea, vomiting, severe headache, confusion, memory impairment, dizziness. In case of severe poisoning may occur paresthesia and numbness, as well as seizures. Treatment of overdose is to appoint a detoxification and symptomatic therapy. Hemodialysis is not effective.
Indomethacin interaction with other drugs
Ethanol, glucocorticoids and colchicine when used with indomethacin to increase the risk of bleeding.
Also, this drug increases the concentration of serum digoxin, methotrexate and lithium preparations.
Indomethacin enhances the action of insulin and tablets hypoglycemic agents. When combined with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and thrombolytic their action is enhanced, increasing the risk of bleeding.
Indomethacin reduces the effects of diuretic drugs, and strengthens the side effects of aspirin, estrogens and glucocorticoids.