Hydrochlorothiazide

 Hydrochlorothiazide formula

Hydrochlorothiazide - a diuretic, or a diuretic used in diseases of the lungs, liver, kidneys and heart to reduce swelling, which were caused by fluid retention and salt in the body.

Pharmacological action

Salureticheskim effect of hydrochlorothiazide is its ability to increase the urinary excretion of potassium, magnesium and bicarbonate.

Use of the drug can significantly reduce the reabsorption (reuptake) of fluid, sodium and chlorine ions in the distal tubule. Hydrochlorothiazide, acting on distal tubules reduces the excretion of calcium ions, which in turn prevents the formation of calcium in the kidney stones.

Use of the drug improves concentration ability of the kidneys, vessel walls oppression susceptibility to the effects of the mediators involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Hydrochlorothiazide has some hypotensive (lowers blood pressure) effect and also reduces polyuria (increased production of urine) in patients with diabetes insipidus.

Further, Hydrochlorothiazide is able in some cases to lower intraocular pressure in angle-closure glaucoma.

Hydrochlorothiazide after oral administration is well absorbed in the intestines, kidneys virtually unchanged.

The maximal effect of the drug is 4 hours after application and observed for a further 12 hours. Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placenta and breast milk.

Indications

Use Hydrochlorothiazide manual recommends that you:

  • hypertension;
  • diabetes insipidus;
  • congestive heart failure;
  • nephritis (inflammatory disease of the kidneys), and nephrosis (kidney disease secondary);
  • liver cirrhosis with ascites edematous syndrome and portal hypertension;
  • pregnancy complications: edema, nephropathy (kidney disease), eclampsia (high blood pressure is critical);
  •   edematous syndrome of various genesis;
  • subcompensated forms of glaucoma;
  • preventing the formation of stones.

Instructions for use of hydrochlorothiazide

 Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets
 Hydrochlorothiazide is produced in the form of 25 mg tablets, intended for use preoral.

Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets is recommended to take in the morning after a meal without chewing or crushing.

In order to reduce blood pressure prescribed daily dose corresponding to 25-50 mg. The hypotensive effect was observed 3-4 days, but sometimes in order to achieve the desired result may need 3-4 weeks.

When edema needed once a day or once every two days receive 1-4 tablets of hydrochlorothiazide (25-100 mg), depending on the response and condition of the patient.

Patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus recommend receive 50-150 mg hydrochlorothiazide in divided doses until until reduced thirst and polyuria, then optionally dose reduction.

Elderly patients are usually given by ½ Hydrochlorothiazide tablet to be taken 1-2 times per day. Children older than 3 years, the daily dose is determined by multiplying the weight of 1-2 mg per child and is given one time per day.

Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets is recommended to take 3-5 days, after which at the same time should take a break and then continue treatment. Supporting dose corresponds to the therapeutic doses only taken twice a week.

Side effects

According to the instructions, Hydrochlorothiazide may cause such adverse reactions as:

  • nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dry mouth, dyspepsia (indigestion)
  • abnormal liver function, jaundice, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas);
  • seizures, confusion, lethargy, poor concentration, irritability, fatigue;
  • weak pulse, heart rhythm disturbances, thrombocytopenia (decrease in the number of platelets in the blood), agranulocytosis (decrease in blood neutrophil granulocytes);
  • urticaria, pruritus, photosensitivity (sensitivity to light);
  • decreased libido, impaired potency, pain, spastic nature, hypokalemia (low potassium ions in the blood).

Contraindications

Hydrochlorothiazide tablets are not given to patients with:

  • hypersensitivity;
  • lactose deficiency, galactosemia and malabsorption of glucose and galactose;
  • impaired liver and kidney function;
  • severe diabetes, gout, anuria (absence of revenue into the bladder of urine);
  • hypercalcemia (high calcium in the blood);
  • systemic lupus erythematosus, pancreatitis.

Take Hydrochlorothiazide instruction is not recommended for pregnant (I trimester) and breastfeeding women.

Caution is needed when administering the drug to patients of advanced age, as well as those suffering from diabetes and atherosclerosis of the brain and heart.

Additional Information

When using hydrochlorothiazide should avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, because the drug increases the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation.

Storage product need to be carried out at room temperature.

Shelf life of hydrochlorothiazide tablets - 5 years.





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