Furosemide - synthetic diuretic drug to treat edema syndrome.
The pharmacological action of Furosemide
The active ingredient Furosemide
It has a diuretic effect, contributing to enhanced removal of water while increasing excretion of calcium and magnesium ions.
When Furosemide amid heart failure is a rapid decrease of the preload on the heart caused by the expansion of the large veins.
After intravenous administration of Furosemide action comes quickly - within 5-10 minutes after ingestion - an average of one hour.
The duration of diuretic effect from taking Furosemide - two or three hours, and at a reduced kidney function effects of the drug can last up to eight hours.
Furosemide drug release in the form:
- Granules for oral suspension (for pediatric use) in 150 ml cans and bags;
- Solution for intravenous and intramuscular injection, in ampoules of 2 ml;
- 40 mg tablets.
According to the instructions Furosemide prescribed for the treatment of edematous syndrome of various origins, including state at:
- Cirrhosis of the liver (portal hypertension);
- Chronic heart failure stage II-III;
- Nephrotic syndrome.
Furthermore, according to the instructions Furosemide used for:
- Cardiac asthma;
- Pulmonary edema;
- Swelling of the brain;
- Hypertension severe;
- Carrying out forced diuresis;
- Some forms of hypertensive crisis.
Instructions for Furosemide is contraindicated in the following cases:
- Stenosis of the urethra;
- In acute glomerulonephritis;
- Against the backdrop of acute kidney failure with anuria;
- When obstruction of the urinary tract stone;
- When hyperuricemia;
- When alkalosis;
- In acute myocardial infarction;
- When hypokalemia;
- Against the backdrop of severe hepatic insufficiency;
- In prekomatosnoe states;
- When a diabetic coma;
- If hypotension;
- In hepatic coma and precoma,
- When hyperglycemic coma;
- In decompensated mitral or aortic stenosis;
- When gout;
- An increase central venous pressure (10 mm Hg);
- Against the background of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy;
- If digitalis intoxication;
- In case of violation of water-electrolyte metabolism, including hyponatremia, hypovolemia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia;
- With heightened sensitivity to furosemide.
Furosemide is administered with care for elderly people, especially with severe atherosclerosis, pregnancy and lactation, as well as against the following diseases:
- Prostatic hyperplasia;
How to use Furosemide
As a rule, the dosage and frequency of physician Furosemide is set individually and depends on:
- The clinical situation;
- The patient's age.
When receiving Furosemide inside adult starting dose ranges from 20 mg to 80 mg per day, which can be gradually increased up to 600 mg per day.
Children Furosemide single dose calculated from the weight and 1-2 mg per 1 kg but not more than 6 mg / kg.
Furosemide dose for adults with intravenous (inkjet) or intramuscular administration should not exceed 40 mg per day (in rare cases - up to 80 mg, divided by two).
Acceptance of Furosemide in pregnancy is only possible for a minimum period consistent with the perceived risk of the use of drugs.
combination with furosemide may lead to an undesirable therapeutic effect that should be considered when therapy.
In an application with Furosemide:
- Cephalosporin antibiotics - increasing the risk of nephrotoxicity gain;
- Aminoglycoside antibiotics - may increase the ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity;
- Hypoglycemic agents and insulin - may reduce their effectiveness;
- Beta-adrenergic agonists, including terbutaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and corticosteroids - may be a strengthening of hypokalemia;
- Phenytoin - sharply reduced diuretic effect Furosemide;
- Indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - may reduce the diuretic effect;
- Astemizole - increases the risk of arrhythmias;
- ACE inhibitors - has been increasing antihypertensive action;
- Colestipol and colestyramine - a decrease absorption and diuretic effect of furosemide;
- Lithium carbonate - strengthening of the drug;
- Digitoxin and digoxin - may increase the toxicity of cardiac glycosides;
- Cisplatin - strengthening Valium actions;
- Cisapride - there has been increasing hypokalemia.
Side effects Furosemide
When Furosemide on the testimony may be violations of the cardiovascular system, expressed as arrhythmias, lowering blood pressure, collapse, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia.
Furosemide on responses can lead to disorders of the nervous system, manifesting as:
- Myasthenia gravis;
- Leg cramps;
Furthermore, Furosemide Review may lead to:
- Impaired vision and hearing (senses);
- Reduced potency, acute urinary retention (especially against prostatic hypertrophy), hematuria, interstitial nephritis (genitourinary system);
- Exacerbation of pancreatitis, nausea, dry mouth, loss of appetite, vomiting, thirst, cholestatic jaundice, constipation or diarrhea (digestive system);
- Hypovolemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis (water-electrolyte exchange);
- Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia (hematopoietic system);
- Muscular weakness, hypotension, hyperglycemia, dizziness, hyperuricaemia with possible worsening of gout, cramps (metabolism).
Also, if Furosemide on the testimony of the presence of predisposition may experience allergic reactions such as photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, purpura, vasculitis, urticaria, fever, exfoliative dermatitis, fever, anaphylactic shock, necrotizing vasculitis and pruritus.
When intravenous furosemide on responses can cause calcification of the kidneys (mainly in preterm infants) and thrombophlebitis.
According to the testimony Furosemide is released from pharmacies on a doctor's appointment. Shelf life - up to three years.