Fentanyl - is a drug belonging to the group of opioid analgesics.
Mode of action Fentanyl
Fentanyl is a synthetic analgesic with a rapid and transient analgesic and sedative effects. In its analgesic capacity surpasses Morphine.
The product has a depressing effect on the vasomotor and respiratory centers. Excited vomiting center, as well as centers of the vagus nerve. Fentanyl enhances the tone of the sphincter of the urinary and gall bladder. It reduces renal blood flow, peristalsis and blood pressure. Promotes the physiological onset of sleep, it causes euphoria.
The rate of development of tolerance and drug dependence to the analgesic effect of Fentanyl different significant individual differences.
The drug is much less likely to cause histamine reactions than other opioid analgesics.
The instructions to the fentanyl noted that the maximum analgesic effect of intravenous administration of the drug observed after 3 minutes, and intramuscular - in half an hour. Its duration of action when administered intravenously is one hour, intramuscular - 2 hours, and the use of a transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) - up to 72 hours.
Fentanyl is used in injections:
- For the relief of pain (post-operative pain, trauma, cancer patients, myocardial infarction);
- For the sedation;
- For the neuroleptanalgesia.
Form of fentanyl in the form of a transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) is intended for the treatment of chronic pain resulting from cancer pathology and certain other diseases (infection Varicella zoster, neuropathy, etc.).
- The oppression of the respiratory center;
- bronchial asthma;
- Pregnancy and lactation;
- Obstetric surgery;
- Cranial hypertension;
Side effects of Fentanyl
According to the instructions Fentanyl can lead to side effects of the different systems:
- Respiratory system - respiratory depression until it stops;
- Central nervous system and sensory organs - drowsiness, headache, blurred vision, euphoria increased intracranial pressure;
- Digestive system - nausea, vomiting, constipation, biliary colic;
- Cardiovascular system - lowering blood pressure, bradycardia up to cardiac arrest;
- Urinary system - urinary retention;
- Allergic reactions - itching, chills, laryngospasm, bronchospasm.
The form of fentanyl in a patch can lead to applications in place a burning sensation, itching, redness of the skin. These phenomena disappear within one day after removal of the patch.
Admission Fentanyl may lead to drug dependence.
With an overdose of the drug needed emergency medical care. Fentanyl is a specific antidote Naloxone. It is supportive and symptomatic therapy (transfer to the ventilator, atropine sulfate, filling bcc).
How to use Fentanyl
According to the instructions fentanyl depending on the clinical situation assigned intravenous or intramuscular administration of the preparation at a dose of 2, 5 to 150 mg per kg body weight of the patient. The intervals between injections are determined by the doctor individually.
When using a transdermal dosage depends on the condition of the patient, and the effectiveness of this treatment.
According to the instructions Fentanyl should only be used by medical personnel, is preparing to hold, if necessary resuscitation.
When using the patch should avoid sunbathing, use of the sauna.
During treatment, patients are prohibited from engaging performing work requires high concentration of attention and speed of reaction.
Prohibited conduct neuroleptanalgesia the absence of the necessary equipment for ventilation.
Fentanyl: the release form
Fentanyl is produced in injectable form 0, 005% of the solution in the ampoule 2, and 0 5, 0 ml.
Fentanyl is also included in a TTS having a special kind of patch membrane regulating the release rate of the active substance.
Fentanyl belongs to the list A and must be kept by the rules established for storage of narcotic drugs.