Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol - a drug which has anti-bacterial properties. It is intended for the treatment of various infectious  Chloramphenicol eye drops
 diseases. Chloramphenicol is widely used in pediatrics and in ophthalmology.

Pharmacological action

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. It effectively acts on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, including pathogens and purulent infection, dysentery, typhoid fever, meningococcal infection. At therapeutic concentrations of the drug has a bacteriostatic effect.

According to the instructions Chloramphenicol is used to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by a spirochete, brucella, rickettsia, chlamydia and the bacterium Haemophilus. With regard to acid-resistant bacteria, protozoa, Clostridium, Escherichia coli chloramphenicol poorly active.

Resistance of microorganisms to this medicinal product is developing quite slowly. The treatment of chloramphenicol cross-resistance to other antibacterial agents usually does not develop.

According to the instructions Chloramphenicol ingestion well and rapidly absorbed. It penetrates well into the cerebrospinal fluid and breast milk.

When used as an eye drop of chloramphenicol ophthalmic created therapeutic concentration of drug in the cornea, the iris and the vitreous body. However, the lens inside the drug does not penetrate.

Form release of chloramphenicol

This drug is produced in the form of tablets containing 0, 25 and 0, 5 g of the active substance.

For topical use in ophthalmic practice Chloramphenicol is used as eye drops to the content of active substance in 1 ml - 2, 5 mg (0, 25%).

Chloramphenicol injection comes in powder form, packed in sterile bottles at 0, 5 and 1 0 g

Synonyms chloramphenicol

This medication is available under other trade names: Chloramphenicol, Levovinizol. Sintomitsina and others. Synonyms chloramphenicol have exactly the indications and contraindications for use, as does Chloramphenicol.

Indications

Chloramphenicol is used for treating:

• generalized forms of salmonellosis;

• paratyphoid;

• tularemia;

• rickettsial diseases;

• Brucellosis;

• typhoid;

• chlamydia;

• Meningitis.

According to the instructions Chloramphenicol can be used for the treatment of other infectious diseases, with the proviso that they are caused by microorganisms susceptible to it. It can be used, and the ineffectiveness of other antibacterial agents, as well as their use is not possible in a particular patient because of individual sensitivity.

In ophthalmology Chloramphenicol is used to treat:

• Conjunctivitis;

• Blepharitis;

• keratitis.

Contraindications chloramphenicol

• Individual intolerance;

• Some skin diseases (fungal infections, psoriasis, eczema);

• oppression of hematopoiesis.

According to the instructions Chloramphenicol is contraindicated in pregnant women, nursing mothers. Do not use this drug for the treatment of newborn babies, because them it can cause the development of "gray syndrome" manifested by nausea, bloating, hypothermia, blue-gray skin due to progressive cyanosis, respiratory disorders and symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

Chloramphenicol: instructions for use

The drug is taken  Chloramphenicol vial
 inside half an hour before a meal. Adults usually assigned to 0, 25 - 0, 5 g reception every six hours. For the treatment of very severe infections Chloramphenicol is assigned four times a day for one gram. In this case it is necessary to carefully monitor renal function, liver and blood formation.

The dosage of chloramphenicol for children is calculated based on the child's age and his body weight.

Duration of therapy chloramphenicol is 7-10 days. If necessary, and subject to good patient tolerability course can be extended to 14 days.

The ophthalmic eyedrops used for chloramphenicol instillations into the conjunctival sac of burying two drops of 3 to 5 times per day. Treatment was carried out for one - two weeks.

Side effects

Application chloramphenicol can lead to various side effects:

• reticulocytopenia;

• Leukopenia;

• Thrombocytopenia;

• Anemia;

• Allergic reactions;

• Reduced sharpness of vision and hearing;

• Confusion;

• Psychomotor agitation;

• Visual and auditory hallucinations;

• dyspepsia.

Occurrence of adverse events require discontinuation of the drug. Synonyms chloramphenicol have similar side effects.

Cautions

Chloramphenicol should not be used for the treatment of acute respiratory infections, sore throats, and any infectious processes occurring in an easy manner. Just do not use the drug as a prophylactic measure.

With great care should be given Chloramphenicol patients who have previously received radiation therapy or treatment with cytotoxic drugs.

The treatment of chloramphenicol is not allowed reception of alcoholic beverages, as this can lead to the development disulfiramopodobnyh reaction (nausea, vomiting, flushing of the skin, cough reflex tachycardia, convulsions).

In the treatment of chloramphenicol must be monitored picture peripheral blood.

It should not be used simultaneously with cytostatic drugs chloramphenicol, indirect anticoagulants, and barbiturates.

Storage conditions chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is released from pharmacies without a prescription. Shelf life of tablets - three years, powder for solution for injection - four years, eye drops - two years, but opening the bottle can be stored no more than a month.





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