Chloramphenicol - antibacterial medication used for the treatment of infectious diseases. It is widely used in ophthalmology and pediatrics.
Chloramphenicol - a broad spectrum antibiotic.
Active substance chloramphenicol effectively affects many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as pathogens meningococcal infection, septic infections, dysentery, typhoid fever.
Chloramphenicol is indicated for the treatment of diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, chlamydia, rickettsia, brucella, spirochetes. At therapeutic concentrations, Chloramphenicol has a bacteriostatic effect.
Chloramphenicol for instructions weakly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acid-fast bacilli, clostridia and protozoa. Drug resistance develops levomitsetinu relatively slow, but there is usually no cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents.
The local application of chloramphenicol therapeutic concentration is created in the iris, the cornea, vitreous body, aqueous humor, while Chloramphenicol not penetrate into the lens.
Chloramphenicol instructions for rapidly and well absorbed after both oral and rectal administration, in reaching the maximum concentration in the blood within a few hours.
Penetrating the organs and tissues of the body fluid, Chloramphenicol penetrates well into the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the mother's milk.
Chloramphenicol produced in the form:
- Chloramphenicol yellowish round tablets containing 0, 5 and 0 g, 25 g of active substance chloramphenicol. Excipients - stearic acid or calcium stearate, potato starch;
- Powder for solution for injection. Each vial contains 500 or 1000 mg active ingredient;
- Eye drops (solution was 0, 25%). 1 ml contains 2, 5 mg of active substance. The droppers, vials of 5 and 10 ml.
Indications for use of chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol is used for:
- Generalized forms of salmonellosis;
- Paratyphoid fever;
- Rickettsial diseases;
- Typhoid fever;
Infectious diseases of other etiology, caused by pathogens which are sensitive to the drug, Chloramphenicol illustrates the ineffectiveness of other chemotherapeutic agents or when their use is not possible because of individual intolerance.
In ophthalmology Chloramphenicol is indicated for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of the eye:
According to the instructions the use of chloramphenicol is contraindicated in:
- Individual intolerance to the active substance;
- Various skin diseases, including psoriasis, fungal infections, eczema;
Chloramphenicol is not applied according to instructions during pregnancy, the newborn and in lactation.
Chloramphenicol children and adults should not be prescribed for angina, acute respiratory diseases, as well as prophylactic and milder forms of infectious processes.
Chloramphenicol should not be administered at the same time:
- Pyrazolone derivatives;
Instructions for use of chloramphenicol
In tablets, Chloramphenicol administered orally half an hour before a meal.
Generally, adults taken 1-2 tablets Chloramphenicol (at 0, 25 g), 3-4 times a day, but no more than 2 grams of the drug daily. In severe cases, the maximum dose of 4 g may be divided by 3-4 hours, under strict control of liver and kidney function and blood condition.
A single dose of chloramphenicol for children under 3 years are calculated based on the weight - 10-15 mg per 1 kg, children 3-8 years - 0, 2.15 g, older children - 0, 2-0, 3 mg per 1 kg mass.
A single dose of chloramphenicol adopted children from 3 to 4 times a day depending on the disease.
The duration of treatment according to the instructions chloramphenicol is 7-10 days, and in some cases, with good tolerability and absence of side effects - up to two weeks.
A solution prepared from the powder used for intravenous and intramuscular administration. Babies Chloramphenicol administered only intramuscularly, what the contents of the vial are dissolved in 2-3 ml of water for injection. In diabetes jet intravenous contents of the vial are dissolved in 10 ml of water for injection. Injection is performed at regular intervals. The duration of treatment and dose of chloramphenicol determined individually.
Adults usually administered 2-3 times daily 500-1000 mg of chloramphenicol, and in severe infections the dose may be increased to two times, but not more than 4000 mg per day.
In ophthalmology dilution used for instillation or injection parabulbar by digging into the conjunctival sac of a few drops of a 5% solution of chloramphenicol from 3 to 5 times per day. The course duration is generally from 5 to 15 days.
Description of side effects of chloramphenicol and reviews
According to the description and reviews, in the application of chloramphenicol may appear different side effects:
- Allergic reactions manifest as skin rashes;
- Cytoplasmic vacuolation early erythrocytic forms;
- Reducing the level of hemoglobin.
Typically, these side effects are reversible and are alone after the abolition of chloramphenicol.
Also according to the instructions and reviews Chloramphenicol can cause:
- Hearing loss and vision;
- Psychomotor disorders;
- Visual and auditory hallucinations;
- Dyspeptic symptoms - vomiting, nausea or diarrhea.
In the application of chloramphenicol in infants in rare cases can develop cardiovascular collapse.
Chloramphenicol is released without a doctor's prescription. According to the disclosure, the shelf life of chloramphenicol tablets - 3 years, powder for solution for injection - 4 years, eye drops - 2 years, thus opening the bottle can be stored no more than a month.