Cetirizine - antiallergic drug. Histamine H1 receptors.
Structure and Composition
The drug is available in three dosage forms:
- White, oblong tablets containing 10 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride each. Auxiliary components: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, titanium dioxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate. In packs of 7 or 10 tablets.
- Colorless, transparent drops for oral administration containing 10 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride in 1 ml. Supporting components: sodium acetate trihydrate, benzoic acid, propylene glycol, glycerol 85%, purified water. In flakonah- 10 or 20 ml.
- Colorless, transparent syrup for oral administration, with odor of banana containing 1 mg of cetirizine dihydrochloride in 1 ml. Additional components: glycerol 85%, sodium saccharin, banana flavor, sorbitol 70%, 20% acetic acid, propyl parahydroxybenzoate, sodium acetate, methyl parahydroxybenzoate, propylene glycol. In the dark glass bottles of 75 or 150 ml, complete with measuring spoon.
Analogues of cetirizine are the following drugs: Alertsetin, Analergin, Zodak, Tsetrin, Tsetirinaks.
Mode of action of cetirizine
According to the instructions of cetirizine is a histamine H1-receptor on the body and has a pronounced anti-allergic effects.
The use of cetirizine at the recommended dosage has practically no sedation and antiserotoninovogo and anticholinergic. Facilitates for allergies and prevents its development. In the opinion of cetirizine has antiexudativ and antipruritic effects.
It affects allergic reactions to an early stage, reduces migration of inflammatory cells. At a later stage inhibits the release of mediators of allergy. It reduces capillary permeability, reduces tissue swelling and spasms of smooth muscles. Removes skin reaction to the introduction of histamine, specific allergens and cooling (eg, with cold urticaria).
In patients with asthma cetirizine Review significantly reduces bronchial hyperreactivity arising due to the release of histamine.
According to the instructions Cetirizine has a therapeutic effect in about an hour after ingestion.
According to the instructions of cetirizine in the following cases:
- urticaria, including chronic idiopathic;
- allergic conjunctivitis;
- seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis (as a symptomatic treatment);
- dermatoses proceeding with itching, including atopic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis.
Dosing and dosing regimen of cetirizine
The drug or analogs of cetirizine in tablet form take children over the age of twelve and adults one tablet a day, preferably before bedtime.
Children aged six to twelve years old, weighing less than 30 kg take on poltabletki evening, weighing more than 30 kg - one tablet before bedtime. Permission to share a pill two times (poltabletki morning, poltabletki - evening).
Cetirizine syrup administered to children aged from two to twelve years, weighing less than 30 kg, in a dose of 5 ml per day, with more than 30 kg in weight - 10 ml per day.
Children over the age of twelve and adults take 10 ml of cetirizine syrup per day.
In the form of droplets cetirizine take children aged one to two years in a dosage of 2 and 5 mg (5 drops) per day. Between two and six years, the dosage is 5 mg (10 drops) per day. At the age of six to twelve years old children taking the drug or analogue cetirizine 10 mg (20 drops) per day.
Children above the age of twelve adults usually take 20 drops (10 mg) per day. The drug is carried out in the evening.
Acceptance of cetirizine in renal failure guest requires a reduction in dosage in half.
Precautions should be selected dosage with abnormal liver function, especially in conjunction with renal insufficiency.
The average duration of treatment for seasonal allergies is 3-6 weeks and in short-term allergy enough of the drug for one week.
The duration of treatment with cetirizine in children under the age of six years, up to one month.
Use of Cetirizine is contraindicated in the following cases:
- pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- severe kidney disease.
According to the instructions of cetirizine should be used with caution in elderly persons, since these patients may be reduced glomerular filtration. In addition, care must be taken in the event of administration of the drug in chronic pyelonephritis moderate and severe stages.
The drug is in the form of drops for children under the age of one year. In the form of a syrup drug can be taken for children older than two years. Tablets are encouraged to nominate, from the age of seven.
During use of cetirizine should not take medicines that suppress the central nervous system, as well as ethanol.
Side effects of cetirizine
In the opinion of cetirizine can cause the following side effects:
- Allergic reactions: urticaria, skin rash, angioedema, pruritus.
- CNS: drowsiness, dizziness, headache, migraine, agitation, fatigue.
- Digestive System: dyspepsia, dry mouth.
Positive reviews of cetirizine show that mostly well tolerated by patients. Usually, side effects are transient.
An overdose of cetirizine causes the following symptoms: lethargy, drowsiness, tachycardia, weakness, headache, urinary retention, irritability, fatigue.
In this case it is necessary to hold the symptomatic treatment, gastric lavage and take activated charcoal.
Storage conditions cetirizine
Cetirizine stored in a dry place at room temperature for no longer than three years.
The drug is in the form of drops after opening the bottle should not be used longer than six months, and the syrup must be used within three months of opening.