Cefotaxime - Cephalosporin 3rd generation.
Structure and Composition of cefotaxime
The drug release
as a white or slightly yellowish powder for solution for injection in vials. One vial contains the active ingredient - sodium salt of cefotaxime is 0, 1 or 5 g
According to the instructions Cefotaxime is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. The use of cefotaxime has a bactericidal effect on the body due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
The drug is active against the following Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., As well as some strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas spp.
Less active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., Staphylococcus spp., Neisseria meningitidis.
In the opinion of cefotaxime resistant to most β-lactamase.
Cefotaxime - indications for use
According to the instructions Cefotaxime prescribe to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases, heavily occurring and caused by microorganisms sensitive to the drug, namely:
• infectious diseases of the pelvic organs;
• abdominal infections;
• infections of joints and bones;
• infectious diseases of soft tissues and the skin;
• urinary tract infection;
• infections of the lower respiratory tract;
• Lyme disease;
• infected burns and wounds.
It is also an indication for cefotaxime is to prevent infections after surgery.
According to the instructions Cefotaxime is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.
The drug should be prescribed with caution in renal failure, colitis in history, as well as newborns.
Dosing and dosing regimen of cefotaxime
By indications Cefotaxime used for intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Children and adults weighing more than 50 kg appoint 1-2 g every 4-12 hours. When weighing less than 50 kg, the dosage is 50-180 mg per kg body weight per day, divided into 2-6 times.
Maximal dosage for children weighing less than 50 kg is 180 mg per kg body weight per day, for adults - 12 g per day.
In the opinion of cefotaxime
It causes the following adverse reactions:
• System of hematopoiesis: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia (only long-term use at high doses of cefotaxime).
• Digestive system: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, pseudomembranous colitis, transient increase in liver transaminases.
• blood clotting system: hypoprothrombinemia.
• Allergies: eosinophilia, skin rash and itching. In the opinion of cefotaxime can in rare cases cause angioedema.
• Urinary system: interstitial nephritis.
• Local adverse reactions: after intravenous injection - phlebitis, intramuscular - pain at the injection site.
In addition, cefotaxime on responses can cause candidiasis, caused by the action of the chemotherapeutic drug.
The use of cefotaxime during pregnancy and breastfeeding
It is not recommended to take the drug in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the second and third trimester and during breast-feeding is recommended to take the drug only under strict indications to cefotaxime.
Note that when administered intravenously at a dosage of 1 g of maximum concentration of the active substance in breast milk after a few hours up to 0.32 ± 0.09 mg / ml, which may adversely affect the oropharyngeal flora child.
The drug inhibits the intestinal flora and prevents the synthesis of vitamin K, so it is not recommended simultaneous with drugs that reduce platelet aggregation, as there is an increased risk of bleeding.
Also, do not use the drug in conjunction with anticoagulants, as may increase the anticoagulant action.
The simultaneous use of cefotaxime with:
• aminoglycosides, "loop" diuretics and polymyxin B causes the risk of kidney damage;
• drugs that reduce calcium secretion, increases the concentration of cefotaxime in plasma;
• probenecid slows down cefotaxime due to reduced secretion of calcium.