Captopril - a synthetic inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, widely used in medical practice for lowering blood pressure.
The active substance captopril exerts vasodilating, hypotensive and cardioprotective effect.
The drug increases the release of biologically active substances that have vasodilator and natriuretic effect, thereby improving renal blood flow. Captopril also reduces the overall pre- and afterload on the heart, vascular resistance, increase cardiac output, pulmonary capillary pressure, increases tolerance to stress and cardiac output.
Captopril Review prolonged use slows the development of left ventricular dilatation, reduce platelet aggregation and prevent the progression of heart failure.
Captopril is produced in the form of white spigot tablets. 25 mg and 50 mg, of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 pieces per pack.
Captopril is indicated for the treatment:
- Hypertension (in both mono and combination therapy);
- Left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction (at steady state);
- Diabetic nephropathy and diabetes mellitus type I.
Captopril is also shown as part of combination therapy in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
According to the instructions Captopril is contraindicated in:
- Hypersensitivity to the active substance - captopril;
- Severe hepatic impairment;
- Severe impaired renal function, azotemia, condition after kidney transplantation, hyperkalaemia, bilateral renal artery stenosis, primary hyperaldosteronism;
- Cardiogenic shock;
- Aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis;
Captopril is contraindicated in pregnancy, the age of 18, and during lactation.
Instructions for use captopril
Captopril for instructions take 1 hour before meal. The duration of treatment and dosage regimen of captopril determined individually physician:
The initial dose of hypertension - twice a day for 12, 5 mg, optionally a single dose of 2 tablets of 25 mg of captopril taken 3 times a day. The maintenance dose for long-term use - 1 tablet of captopril (25 mg) 2-3 times a day, the maximum daily dose of exacerbations should not exceed 6 tablets of 25 mg of captopril.
The starting dose in patients with renal and renovascular hypertension take three times a day for 6, 25 mg maintenance dose - 1 tablet of captopril (25 mg) three times a day.
The starting dose in patients with chronic heart failure, renal dysfunction and post-MI is the same. Gradually, every 2-3 weeks, it is brought to a maintenance dose - 25-50 mg 2-3 times a day.
The dose of captopril in the elderly is selected individually, starting with the lowest. It is desirable not to increase during the entire treatment. If necessary, you can use an additional loop diuretics.
According to the instructions Captopril may cause the following side effects:
- Central nervous system depression, headache, ataxia, seizures, dizziness, confusion, fatigue, blurred vision and sense of smell, depression, numbness, or tingling in the limbs;
- Bronchitis, bronchospasm, non-productive cough, shortness of breath;
- Heart rhythm disturbances, orthostatic hypotension, angina pectoris, tachycardia, and myocardial infarction;
- Exfoliative dermatitis, skin rash, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, photodermatitis, alopecia, angioedema;
- Arthritis, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy;
- Taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, stomatitis, flatulence, ulcerative lesions of the mucous membranes of the mouth and stomach, constipation or diarrhea, vomiting, dry mouth, glossitis, abdominal pain;
- Renal dysfunction, proteinuria, oliguria;
- Neutropenia, hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia;
- Cholestatic hepatitis, cholestasis, pancreatitis, hepatocellular necrosis.
In the opinion of captopril, side effects are more subject to salt-free diet or malosolevoy.
Precautions Captopril is used for:
- Severe autoimmune diseases;
- Suppression of bone marrow blood circulation;
- Cerebral ischemia;
- Coronary heart disease.
When captopril overdose the following symptoms may occur: myocardial infarction, marked reduction in blood pressure, thromboembolic complications, acute ischemic stroke.
Captopril is used with caution in the treatment with allopurinol, procainamide, azathioprine or other immunosuppressive agents, especially in renal impairment.
When hronicheskoy heart failure and diffuse connective tissue diseases Captopril is used under close medical supervision.
The hypotensive effect of captopril on the reviews, decrease estrogen and indomethacin.
Captopril related to drugs List B and is released under the doctor's prescription. Shelf life - 3 years.