Atropine

Pharmacological action

 Atropine

Atropine is an anticholinergic and antispasmodic. The active ingredient of the drug is atropine, which is a poisonous alkaloid that is found in the leaves and seeds of plants of the nightshade family, such as henbane, belladonna, datura. The main feature of the chemical Atropine is its ability to block M-holinoreaktivnye body systems, which are located in the heart muscle, organs with smooth muscles, the central nervous system and secretory glands. As a result of blocking M-cholinergic receptors become insensitive to the mediator of nerve impulses (acetylcholine).

Application of Atropine reduces the secretory function of glands, relaxes smooth muscle tone bodies, mydriasis, increased intraocular pressure and paralysis of accommodation (the eye's ability to change the focal length). Acceleration and excitement of cardiac activity after application of Atropine is due to its ability to remove the inhibitory effect of the vagus nerve. Effect of Atropine on the central nervous system occurs in the form of stimulation of the respiratory center, and the use of toxic doses of possible motor and mental arousal (seizures, visual hallucinations).

Atropine quickly enters the blood stream from the place of application and then distributed for a short time in the body. The maximum effect of the drug following intravenous administration occurs within 2-4 minutes after oral administration - after half an hour. Plasma protein binding occurs at 18%. The drug is able to cross the placenta and the blood-brain barrier. Excreted by the kidneys, with urine comes in the form of metabolites and intact. Traces of the drug can be detected in breast milk.

Indications Atropine

This drug is widely used for the treatment of the following diseases:

  • biliary spasm, smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • acute pancreatitis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
  • renal colic, intestinal colic, irritable bowel syndrome;
  • laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bronchitis with hypersecretion, bronchial asthma;
  • incontinence due to increased excitability of muscle of the bladder;
  • pulmonary hemorrhage;
  • asphyxiant poisoning, morphine nicotinic substances, poisonous mushrooms (Amanita muscaria), anticholinesterase drugs.

According to the instructions, atropine can be used as premedication before surgery, as well as during radiological examination of the intestine.

In ophthalmology Atropine drops are used to expand the pupil of the eye and to achieve paralysis of accommodation for the study and definition of the fundus manifest refraction. Also Atropine drops are used to create functional rest in inflammatory diseases and eye injuries.

Dosing Atropine

According to the instructions, Atropine can be administered orally, administered intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously. In these methods of administration, depending on the intended effect doctor prescribes a single dose of which typically corresponds to 0, 25 - 1 mg or the same amount of one milliliter and received - twice a day.

When induction of anesthesia Atropine (0, 3-0, 6 mg) intramuscularly or applied under the skin for thirty minutes - one hour before anesthesia, and in combination with morphine - 60 minutes prior to anesthesia.

Application of Atropine in poisoning occurs antiholiesteraznymi preparations 2 mg intramuscular injection every half hour.

The maximum single dose should not exceed 2 mg, and the daily - 3mg. Babies daily dose of Atropine administered in two divided doses and should not exceed 0, 02 mg (for children up to 6 months.), 0, 05 mg (6 mo. - 1 year), 0, 2 mg (1-2 years) 0 25 mg (3-4 years), 0, 3 mg (5-6 years), 0, 4 mg (7-9 years), 0, 5 mg (10-14 years).

In ophthalmology used Atropine drops, ointment or solution. The patient eye instilled 1-2 drops of 1% (adults), 0, 5%, 0, 25%, 0 and 125% (children) of a solution or the edge of the century lay 1% ointment. Atropine drops and ointment should be applied no more than three times a day with 5-6 hour intervals. In some cases, the drug in the form of a 1% solution is administered subconjunctivally (instilled into the eye) in a dose of 0, 2-0, 5% or parabulbarly (injection under the eyeball) - 0, 3-0, 5 ml.

side effects

The instructions to atropine indicated the following negative effects that may be triggered by the use of the drug:

  • dizziness, insomnia, headache, euphoria, confusion, impaired tactile perception;
  • ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, myocardial infarction, worsening due to excessive tachycardia, sinus tachycardia;
  • constipation, dry mouth;
  • urinary retention, intestinal and bladder, photophobia, fever;
  • increased intraocular pressure, the development of conjunctivitis, conjunctival hyperemia and edema, paralysis of accommodation, mydriasis.

Contraindications to the use of Atropine

This drug is not indicated for hypersensitivity to it, as well as keratoconus, angle-closure glaucoma, open angle glaucoma,

The instructions to atropine Set a number of diseases in which the use of this drug should be done with extreme caution:

- Disorders of the cardiovascular system, in which the undesirable increase in heart rate;

- Fever;

- Reflux esophagitis or combined with it hiatal hernia;

- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that are accompanied by obstruction;

- Intestinal, especially in debilitated patients or elderly patients;

- Disease with elevated intraocular pressure;

- Ulcerative colitis;

- Hepatic impairment;

- Dry mouth;

- Renal insufficiency;

- Chronic lung disease;

- Myasthenia gravis;

- Diseases that are accompanied by obstruction of the urinary tract;

- Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, brain damage in children;

- Iris adhesions, and age older than 40 years - in ophthalmology.

Pregnancy and lactation are also a cause for cautious destination Atropine.

Additional Information

 Atropine Sulfate
 Shelf life Atropine is 5 years, the manufacturer specifies the end date for the use of the packaging. Store this medication in a dark and inaccessible to children.

Atropine Sulfate

Atropine sulphate is an analogue Atropine, concerning characteristics correspond to the characteristics Atropine sulfate Atropine. Drugs atropine sulfate, atropine should be taken only on doctor's prescription and under his constant supervision.





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