Ketamine

 Ketamine anesthesia
 Ketamine - a drug for anesthesia.

Pharmacological action

Ketamine has anesthetic, analgesic effect after intramuscular, intravenous administration.

Narcotic drug doses has a short, quick narcotizing effect maintaining normal spontaneous breathing.

The bulk of the drug is excreted in the urine within two hours, and some metabolites remain in the body for several days. When multiple doses of Ketamine accumulation was observed.

Product form

Ketamine released in solution.

Indications

According to the instructions Ketamine is indicated for the complex and mononarkoza.

Especially effective anesthetic ketamine in patients with low blood pressure, patients who need to save or spend spontaneous breathing artificial pulmonary ventilation without nitrous oxide mixtures.

The drug is used in emergency surgery for patients with hemorrhage, traumatic shock, various operations, endoscopic procedures at cardiac catheterization, small surgical manipulation, dressings.

Ketamine anesthesia may be used in ophthalmic, ENT, dental, obstetrics (caesarean section) practice.

Instructions for use of Ketamine

 Ketamine solution

Ketamine is administered drip or fractional jet simultaneously, intramuscularly.

Adults are injected 2-3mg / kg intravenously, 4-8mg / kg intramuscularly.

Anesthesia Ketamine support injection - intramuscular inject 3mg / kg or 0, 5-1mg / kg intravenously.

For maintenance of general anesthesia drug is administered at a rate of 2 mg / kg / hr infusion pumps or drip - 0, 1% solution in a solution of sodium chloride or glucose solution isotonic - 30-60kap / min.

For children Ketamine is used as the induction of anesthesia in combined anesthesia. After premedication by intramuscular injection once administered 4-5mg / kg of 5% solution. As a general anesthesia using 1% or 5% solution - intramuscularly and intravenously, respectively, or 0, 1% solution drip (30-60kap / min).

Newborns injected drug intramuscularly, hoping 8-12mg / kg. Babies 1-6l - 6-10mg / kg 7-14l - 4-8mg / kg. Intravenous impose 2-3mg / kg. Maintain anesthesia injections of 3-5 mg / kg intramuscularly or intravenously - 1 mg / kg. Can maintain anesthesia and intravenous drip solution of 0, 1% - 30-60kap / min.

side effects

Ketamine causes an increase in pressure, increased heart rate and cardiac volume, decreased peripheral vascular resistance.

Ketamine anesthesia is not usually provoke broncho laryngospasm, does not inhibit breathing (but it can occur with intravenous rapid introduction) and reflexes of the upper respiratory tract, causes vomiting, nausea.

It may cause involuntary movements, increased tone, hallucinations. All of these effects can be prevented or eliminated by introducing droperidol or tranquilizers.

Intravenous Ketamine can cause redness, pain, skin along the vein. The patient awoke from anesthesia, can be in disorientation, agitation.

Contraindications to the use of Ketamine

According to the instructions Ketamine should not be prescribed suffering from circulatory disorders of the brain, hypertension, eclampsia during circulatory decompensation, epilepsy and other diseases accompanied by convulsions.

Caution should be observed when using Ketamine on operations on the larynx.

You can not mix the drug with barbiturates are allowed to combine with analgesics, neuroleptics, reducing the dose of ketamine.





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