brain. general information
The brain is to the front of the central nervous system, being located inside the cranium.
At the heart of the building
brain - neural network, the connection between the elements of which is supported by the synapses. The interaction between neurons through a synaptic connection leads to the formation of electrical impulses that control the activity of the body.
A neuron is a nerve cell body having long and short processes: an axon and dendrite, respectively. Axon play an important role in the transmission of pulses, as he, contacting the axons of other nerve cells, synapse described above.
Signal transmission between brain cells is performed by neurotransmitters.
Furthermore the neurons to brain cells are glial cells, of which there are 7 types. Each type has its own function.
The largest vessels of the brain, the power to implement it, are the three arteries - one main and two internal carotid. However, blood enters the brain tissue indirectly. Minimize the penetration of infection to the brain helps the blood-brain barrier. It has selective permeability, protecting from infection and brain penetration of some drugs. In this blood-brain barrier is not surrounds the entire surface of the brain. There are areas free from his defense. These include, for example, the hypothalamic region of the brain.
The brain of higher vertebrates is enclosed in the skull which protects the brain from damage and shock. The very body is covered with shells: solid, based on the connective tissue, soft and vascular (arachnoid) located between them. The space between the shells is filled with cerebrospinal fluid - liquor.
Parts of the brain
Parts of the brain correspond to the number of brain bubbles preceding the development of the body in embryogenesis:
- hindbrain which includes the cerebellum and the bridge;
- midbrain, which includes the roof of the midbrain with two twin mounds and the two legs of the brain;
- midbrain, which includes the hypothalamus and thalamus in the amount of two pieces, as well as two pairs of geniculate bodies;
- telencephalon, in fact the two hemispheres of the brain.
The relationship between the sections of the brain there is not only anatomical but also functional.
The functions of the brain
Despite the fact that each of the parts of the brain specialized in performing various functions, overall performance can be represented as follows:
- thinking - the highest function of man;
- processing of sensory information that comes from the senses;
- making decisions;
- coordination, management;
- formation of emotion;
- generation and perception of speech.
Despite a solid defense, which is surrounded by the brain, this fragile body is exposed to various tests, one of which is a concussion. When shake (which refers to a mild form of traumatic brain injury) can be brief loss of consciousness. The main complaints are the complaints of the patient on the occurrence of headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, as well as the emergence of tinnitus, and increased sweating.
Deviations in the vital functions were observed. The bones of the skull without any damage. Typically, the patient's general condition is improved for the first or second day after injury.
Treatment of brain during shaking includes medical examinations, which clarifies the diagnosis using X-ray examination. Next may be prescribed bed rest for at least 5 days in the hospital. Duration if necessary adjusted upwards.
Drug treatment of the brain when it is shaken aimed at restoring its normal state, as well as pain relief, elimination of insomnia, dizziness and anxiety. Usually, the doctor prescribes drugs from the list of analgesics, hypnotics and sedatives. In addition, in some cases therapy for concussion include coursework metabolic and vascular procedures aimed at accelerating the restoration of disturbed brain function.
It should be borne in mind that when you shake the brain organic lesions body never arise. When screening for CT or MRI revealed traumatic changes it is likely talking about brain injury - a more serious injury.
Vascular diseases of the brain
Power cord and supply it with oxygen and energy carried the vessels of the brain - the three main arteries, which mentioned above. Cerebral blood circulation disorders caused by vascular pathology are common diseases and in second place in mortality (after coronary heart disease). These include, first and foremost, cerebral arteriosclerosis, stroke, cerebral aneurysms and a number of others.
1. Cerebral atherosclerosis occurs against the backdrop of the endocrine and biochemical processes and mechanisms neyroregulyatornyh, followed by worsening cerebral circulation. There impair mental functions. Patients often complain of memory impairment (especially suffers memorization), associative memory. There is the inertia of mental processes, there is a special type of dementia. Treatment of brain with cerebral arteriosclerosis include rationalization of work and food, the use of medicines, including drugs lipotropic and hypocholesterolemic action means reducing inflammation in the blood vessels, as well as restorative drugs;
2. Stroke is an acute cerebral circulatory disorders. Symptoms in this case is in the nature of sudden and focal. The risk group as follows: advanced age, smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. The symptoms of stroke are different. As a rule, marked impairment of consciousness, stupor, drowsiness / state of excitement, dizziness, possible loss of consciousness. Among vegetative symptoms: hot flashes, sweating, dry mouth. Symptoms, by and large, due to the fact in any field is the lesion. Treatment of stroke involves a course of vascular therapy, oxygen therapy, restorative treatment procedures (massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy);
3. cerebral aneurysms affects one of the arteries that feed the body. Hemorrhage (subarachnoid or intracerebral) can lead to death or neurological disorders. Early detection and elimination of the aneurysm from blood flow is considered by far the best treatment.