The stomach - is a hollow body, which is a reservoir for the digestion of food. It is
between the esophagus and duodenum. After grinding, the food in the oral cavity into the stomach where it is collected and partially digested by gastric acid, comprising a hydrochloric acid and several digestive enzymes. These enzymes help digest proteins and partially digested fats.
Gastric juice has a strong bactericidal effect. This makes it detrimental effect on many pathogens that could fall into the cavity of the stomach with low-quality food. Well known is the fact that people with high acidity of the stomach is almost never sick with cholera.
The gastric juice also contains a special slimy substance - mucin, which protects the stomach wall from self-digestion.
The structure of the stomach
Stomach - a hollow muscular organ in appearance resembles the letter J. The length of its convex lower contour, called the large curvature of the stomach, three times more than the concave upper loop (small curvature).
The stomach can be divided into three parts:
- Cardiac Department - includes the junction of the esophagus and stomach (cardiac orifice) and the bottom of the stomach;
- The body of the stomach - the middle part;
- Gatekeeper or pylorus - the place of the stomach with the duodenum.
The stomach is composed of four shells. Inside is a mucous membrane, cells that produce gastric juices and enzymes. Behind her is submucosa. It is represented by fibers of connective tissue, between which there are nerves, blood and lymph vessels. Next shell consists of smooth muscle fibers, and outside it is covered by the serous membrane.
The volume of the empty stomach is about half a liter. When filling his food, he can take up to four liters.
The acidity of the stomach
The total acidity of the stomach depends on the content of the gastric juice hydrochloric acid produced parietal (parietal) cells available in the mucosa. The acidity of the stomach as determined by the number and parietal cells in the gastric juice contained alkaline neutralizing component total acidity.
Diseases of the stomach
Among all the diseases of internal organs are the most common variety of diseases of the digestive system, including stomach ulcers: gastritis (acute and chronic), peptic ulcer disease, cancer. In all these diseases there is a symptom, the pain in the stomach. These pains may be very diverse in nature: aching, sharp, paroxysmal. Often, stomach pain associated with eating. For example, at a stomach ulcer stomach pain occur after eating, and ulcerative lesions of the duodenum are characterized by pain, disappearing after a meal, the so-called "hungry" pain.
engaged physician gastroenterologist. For the correct diagnosis in gastroenterology, various instrumental methods of diagnosis: esophagoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, laparoscopy, and others. These methods are quite simple, safe and quite informative.
Modern gastroenterology has a large arsenal of drugs that allow for the treatment of gastric conservative methods. For surgical treatment is resorted to only in cases where medical treatment does not lead to the desired effect, as well as the presence of malignant tumors of the stomach or massive bleeding.