The larynx is the upper part of the breathing tube, which is arranged in front of the neck at the level of 4-7 vertebrae. The larynx is connected to the hyoid bone schitopodyazychnoy membrane and laterally adjacent to schitopodyazychnoy gland.
General characteristics of the larynx
The larynx plays an important role in the formation of sounds and human speech. The air flowing through the larynx, causing vibrations of the vocal cords and forms sounds. The circulating air flow in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx is regulated by the nervous system and allows the person to talk and sing.
The larynx functions as a unit of motion, which has cartilage connected with bundles of muscles and joints, allowing you to control the vocal cords and the change of the glottis.
The structure of the larynx
The structure of the larynx is a skeleton of paired and unpaired cartilages.
Unpaired cartilages are
- thyroid cartilage, which consists of wide plates disposed at a predetermined angle;
- cricoid cartilage is the foundation of the larynx and the trachea connected to the via ligament;
- epiglottic cartilage covers the entrance to the throat when eating, and clings to the surface of the thyroid cartilage by a ligament.
- arytenoid cartilages have a pyramid shape and connected to the cricoid cartilage plate type;
- rozhkovidnye cartilage has a conical shape and are arranged in cherpalonadgortannoy fold;
- wedge-shaped cartilage are wedge-shaped and located above rozhkovidnymi cartilage.
The cartilage of the larynx are interconnected by joints and ligaments, and the free space is filled with membranes. Moving air is the tension of the vocal cords and each of cartilage plays a role in the formation of sounds.
Movement of the cartilage of the larynx is regulated front neck muscles. These muscles change the position of the supraglottic cartilage in breathing, speech, singing and swallowing.
The structure of the larynx is aimed at the implementation of speech function and maintenance of the vocal apparatus.
The muscles of the larynx are located vocal apparatus, which are divided into:
- muscle relaxation of the vocal cords - Voice muscle designed to narrow the glottis and schitocherpalovidnaya muscle located at the front side of the thyroid cartilage;
- muscle tension of the vocal cords - perstneschitovidnaya muscle;
- muscle constriction of the glottis - perstnecherpalovidnaya side muscle, which changes the position of the arytenoid cartilage, and transverse arytenoid muscle, which pulls together arytenoid cartilage and pulls them;
- muscle extension of the glottis - perstnecherpalovidnaya back muscle that rotates the arytenoid cartilage and changes the position of his voice processes.
Diseases of the larynx
Diseases of the larynx are of inflammatory, infectious and allergic in nature.
The most common
diseases of the larynx include the following.
Acute laryngitis that is accompanied by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. This disease is the result of exogenous and endogenous factors. The exogenous factors act throat irritation, hypothermia, exposure to the mucosa of harmful substances (gas, chemicals, dust, etc.), the reception is very cold or very hot foods and liquids. Endogenous factors include lowered immunity, severe disease of the digestive system, allergies, atrophy of the mucous membrane of the larynx.
Laryngitis often manifests itself in adolescence, particularly in boys when mutations vote. A major cause for the development of acute laryngitis may be bacterial flora - strep, influenza virus, rhinovirus, coronavirus.
Infiltrative laryngitis is accompanied by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and deeply lying tissues. The inflammatory process is in the ligaments, muscles and perichondrium vocal apparatus. The main cause of laryngitis are infiltrative infections that penetrate the tissue of the larynx in infectious diseases and injuries.
Laryngeal sore throat is an infection of acute type, which is accompanied by lymph tissue of the larynx, thickening and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lingual surface of the epiglottis.
Laryngeal edema often develop allergic reactions of various etiologies. Laryngeal edema is manifested as inflammation of the mucosa and narrowing of the lumen of the larynx. The disease is the result of other inflammatory or infectious process in the larynx.
Acute laryngeal edema may develop under the influence of inflammation, acute infectious diseases, injuries and tumors, allergic reactions and pathological processes that take place in the larynx and trachea.
Stenosis of the larynx leads to a narrowing of the lumen and prevents air circulation in the lower respiratory tract. Laryngeal stenosis high risk of asphyxiation as a result of insufficient flow of air into the lungs.
Stenosis of the larynx and laringicheskogo traheicheskogo type are considered and treated as a disease. With the rapid course of the disease and the appearance of a high risk of severe disorders of respiratory function requires emergency medical care.
Treatment and recovery of laryngeal voice
The main factors weakening of ligaments and voice loss are:
- viral infection;
- inflammation caused by strain ligaments and congestion;
- ligament damage in a chemical or other production;
- loss of voice in the nervous system as a result of neurosis;
- irritation of the ligament sharp foods hot or cold drinks.
Treatment of the larynx is carried out, depending on the types and causes of the disease. Usually, the voice is restored without medical treatment, over time, have a rest from the strain ligaments and restored.
There are a few basic ways to restore the voting:
- removal of the stimulus or allergen (dust, smoke, spicy food, cold liquid, etc.);
- treatment of diseases of the throat - laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat;
- avoidance voltage ligaments silence for a few days;
- calm and warm compresses to the neck.
If inflammation of the ligamentous apparatus and larynx is chronic, you should seek the help of an audiologist, undergo medical treatment of the larynx and do special exercises to restore voice and strengthen ligaments.