The clavicle. General information
The clavicle (from the Latin. Clavicula - «key") is a pair cortical bone of the shoulder girdle, connecting the upper limb (arm) from the rest of the body. Form bone
resembles a slightly elongated letter S.
The clavicle is located above the first rib. Its outer end is attached to the process of the scapula, forming a so-called acromioclavicular joint, internal (sternum) is articulated to the end of the sternum, forming sternoclavicular joint. Each of these joints strengthened with the help of cords.
For a number of muscles attached collarbone. So, the end of the sternum to her leg attached sternocleidomastoid muscle, which is located in the neck. Attached to the outer end deltoid and trapezius muscles. Weak subclavian muscle located at the lower surface of the clavicle.
Under the clavicle are large vessels, as well as pass the brachial plexus is responsible for innervation of the hand.
Although the clavicle that - one of the first bone in embryonic development begins the process of ossification (this occurs approximately six weeks from the moment of conception), the process ends at it only to 20-25 years.
The clavicle, contrary to what applies to the long bones has no medullary cavity, that is, it does not have the bone marrow. At the heart of its origin - the spongy bone with a compact shell.
Functions that perform the collarbone in the body:
- It is part of a mechanism where the clavicle is a solid support for fastening vanes and the free limb, which allows to have maximum flexibility hand movements;
- protection cervico-muscular channel (located between the arm and neck) and critical structures extending therethrough;
- transmission of natural impulses to the axial skeleton of the upper limbs.
Damage to the clavicle
Typical damage to the clavicle include:
. clavicle fracture, typically a consequence of the fall to the arm or shoulder
. There are cases of bone fracture in newborn infants during the passage through the birth canal
. At the turn of the collarbone marked a number of characteristic symptoms: pain at the injury site immediately after the injury, the appearance of puffiness and swelling, limitation of movement, inability to raise the injured arm
. Fracture of clavicle determine the offset is much simpler than in its absence,
. In this case, a change in length of a broken limb, the shoulder joint are also changed its location, visually falling below
. Often lost a clavicle fracture sensitivity and mobility of the fingers and wrist, indicating damage to the nerves and blood vessels
. Treatment-specific, depending on the presence or absence of displacement of the clavicle fracture
. Thus, in the absence of recommended imposition of stiff fixation bandages, in extreme cases - surgery
. At the turn of the clavicle with displacement necessary to impose two tires Cramer related to one
. Complicated fractures require surgery, setting a special plate, the spokes
. As a rule, after the treatment of patients prescribed courses of massage or therapeutic exercises to restore motor activity
. Adults broken collarbone heals within
. dislocation of the clavicle - a phenomenon often enough and is about 5% of all dislocations
. As well as a fracture, dislocation of the clavicle is a result of the fall in the allotted arm or shoulder, in rare cases, the cause can be in a sharp contraction shoulder girdle region
. Dislocation can be observed from the acromion and clavicle sternal ends
. When this first occurs in the order of most
. The main complaints are at fault: the presence of pain in the collarbone, swelling in the injured area, the protrusion of one of the ends of the bone
. Movement of the victim are limited and palpation causes pain
. Acromioclavicular dislocation of the clavicle can be complete or incomplete (partial)
. Depending on this, the victim is assigned to treatment
. For example, the incomplete dislocation recommended joint immobilization followed by the appointment of physiotherapy and physiotherapy
. Complete dislocation of the clavicle requires surgery with fixation silk thread or Mylar tape
. When sternal dislocation also noted the presence of pain in the collarbone, noticeable deformation joints in the form of protrusions (in the front sternal dislocation), or sticking of (at retrosternal), movement stiffness, painful palpation
. In order to clarify the diagnosis is assigned to X-ray examination
. Treatment is carried out by means of imposing a special vosmiobraznoy plaster cast along with the operational methods and lavsanoplastikoy