The bronchi. general characteristics
The bronchi are referred to part ways of conducting air. Being a branch of the tracheal tube, they connect it with the respiratory lung tissue (parenchyma).
At 5-6 thoracic trachea is divided into two main bronchi: right and left, each of which is included in the corresponding lung. In the lungs, the bronchi branch out to form the bronchial tree with an enormous cross-sectional area: about 11,800 cm2.
Dimensions bronchi differ. So, the right is shorter and wider than the left, its length - from 2 to 3 cm, length of the left bronchus - 4-6 cm. Also, the size of the bronchi differ by gender: women are shorter than men.
The upper surface of the right bronchus in contact with the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and unpaired vein, the posterior surface - with itself vagus nerve, its branches, as well as the esophagus, breast duct and rear right bronchial artery. The bottom and front surface - with lymph node and pulmonary artery, respectively.
The upper surface of the left bronchus adjacent to the aortic arch, the back - to the descending aorta and the branches of the vagus nerve, the front - to bronchial artery, the lower - to the lymph nodes.
The structure of the bronchi
Structure bronchi differs depending on the order. By decreasing the diameter of the bronchus of the shell becomes softer, losing gravelly. However, there are common features. There are three envelope generators bronchial wall:
- Mucous. It is covered with ciliated epithelium, located in several rows. Furthermore, it includes several varieties detected cells, each of which performs its functions. Goblet form mucous secretion, neuroendocrine secrete serotonin, intermediate and basal take part in the restoration of the mucous membranes;
- Fibro-cartilaginous muscle. At the core of its structure - unclosed hyaline cartilage rings bonded to each other layer of fibrous tissue;
- Adventitia. The shell formed by connective tissue, which has loose and unformed structure.
Functions of the bronchi
The main function of the bronchi is transport of oxygen from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs. Another function of the bronchi due to their availability and ability to form cilia mucus is protective. Moreover, they are responsible for the formation of the cough reflex, which helps eliminate dust and other foreign bodies.
Finally, the air passing through the long network of the bronchi, moistened and warmed to the desired temperature.
It is clear that the treatment of diseases of the bronchial tubes - one of the main tasks.
Diseases of the bronchi
Some of the most common diseases of the bronchi are described below:
- Chronic bronchitis is a condition where there is an inflammation of the bronchi and the appearance of sclerotic changes in them. It is characterized by cough (continuous or intermittent) with sputum. Its duration is at least three months for one year, the length - at least 2 years. Chances of occurrence of exacerbations and remissions. Auscultation of the lungs to determine the rigid vesicular breathing accompanied by wheezing in the bronchi;
- Bronchiectasis are extensions that cause inflammation of the bronchi, dystrophy or multiple sclerosis of their walls. Often based on the phenomenon occurs bronchiectasis, which is characterized by inflammation of the bronchi and the emergence of purulent process in their lower part. One of the main symptoms of bronchiectasis is a cough, accompanied by copious amounts of sputum containing pus. In some cases, a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis. Auscultation allows you to define a weakened vesicular breathing, accompanied by dry and wet rattling in the bronchial tubes. Most often, the disease occurs in childhood or adolescence;
- bronchial asthma observed heavy breathing, accompanied by dyspnea, bronchospasm and hypersecretion. Refers to a chronic disease, is caused by a hereditary or - infectious diseases of the respiratory system (including bronchitis). Asthma attacks, which are the main manifestations of the disease, often disturb the patient during the night. Also frequently observed tightness in the chest, sharp pain in the right hypochondrium. Adequately chosen treatment of bronchial tubes in this disease can reduce the frequency of attacks;
- Bronhospastichesky syndrome (also known as bronchospasm) is characterized by spasm of the bronchial smooth muscle, in which there is shortness of breath. Most often it is the sudden nature and often goes into a state of suffocation. The situation is aggravated by the emission of bronchial secretions, which impairs their permeability, making it difficult to inhale even more. Generally, bronchospasm is a condition accompanying certain diseases: bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
Research Methods bronchi
The existence of a set of procedures to help assess the correctness of the structure of the bronchi and their status for diseases, allows you to choose the most appropriate treatment of bronchial tubes in a particular case.
One of the main and proven ways is to survey, in which marked complaints of cough, its features, the presence of dyspnea, hemoptysis and other symptoms. It is also necessary to note the presence of the factors that adversely affect the condition of the bronchi: smoking, work in conditions of increased air pollution and others. Particular attention should be paid to the appearance of the patient: skin color, shape of the chest and other specific symptoms.
Auscultation - a method that allows you to determine whether changes in breathing, including wheezing in the bronchi (dry, wet, srednepuzyrchatye etc.), Rigidity and other breathing.
Using X-ray examination can not identify the presence of the extensions of the roots of the lungs, as well as irregularities in the lung pattern that is characteristic of chronic bronchitis. A characteristic feature of bronchiectasis is to expand the lumen of the bronchi and seal their walls. For tumors of the bronchi peculiar local dimming light.
Spirography - functional studies of the state of the bronchi, which allows to evaluate the type of violation of their ventilation. Effective with bronchitis and asthma. In its basis - measuring principle vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and other indicators.