Teeth - solid bone formation. In humans and
Most vertebrates are arranged in the mouth and serve as entrainment food, its retention and mastication.
In children, the baby teeth begin to erupt with three months. Normally, as a child should be cut 20 milk teeth (eight incisors, four canines and eight molars). In the period from six to twelve years of primary teeth are replaced by permanent.
In adults, normal can be from 28 to 32 permanent teeth - eight incisors, four canines, eight premolars (small molars) and 8 to 12 molars (molars).
The structure of the teeth
A tooth is comprised of top (crown) and a root neck (or roots). The crown of the tooth is called the land that after the eruption completely or partially protrudes above the gumline. At the crown surface of doctors isolated occlusion (closing), vestibular (front), lingual (lingual) and proximal (contact) surface. The roots of teeth are placed in the alveolar wells - depressions in the jaw. The incisors, canines, premolars and second premolars have one root, and from the first premolars of the upper jaw and lower jaw molars depart two roots. Tree roots have molars of the upper jaw. Tooth root is retained in the alveoli by periodontal formed by the merger bundles of collagen fibers.
Above each tooth is covered with enamel - the hardest tissue in the body. Enamel recently erupted tooth is protected by a cuticle - a thin but very strong film. Over time, the cuticle is replaced pellicle (a derivative of saliva).
Under a layer of enamel is dentin - the basis of the tooth. The root zone is penetrated dentin collagen fibers and covered with cement. To cement impregnated with mineral salts, periodontal attached.
The space inside the tooth is filled with dental pulp - the soft loose connective tissue. The interior space is divided into a tooth root canal and pulp chamber. The pulp is permeated by nerve fibers, blood and lymphatic vessels, which are the roots break up into separate small branches. When caries tooth hurts because of the presence in the pulp of a huge number of nerve endings.
Each type of tooth has its own function. So, cutters grab and cut food, tearing fangs and keep food and back teeth (large indigenous) mulled pieces of food mass.
Furthermore, the teeth are involved in the formation of speech sounds.
Tooth extraction - surgery for its removal from the alveoli.
Reasons for removal varied. Most often removed teeth are not subject to recovery by other methods:
- Teeth diseased gums, especially in cases where the tooth ache and begins to become loose.
- Broken teeth, which can not be recovered.
- The teeth are arranged properly in the dentition.
Before making the decision about the removal, the dentist has to collect dental and general medical history, make the necessary X-rays. In X-rays the physician must assess the condition of the tooth and its roots, and the state of the bones placed around the root. History helps the doctor to get all the necessary information about the patient's health.
Prior to the removal of the doctor anaesthetises tooth and the surrounding gums and bone. In the region of the needle is applied to the high concentration of anesthetic gel, and the patient does not feel the needle penetration. This allows the process to anesthetize anesthesia.
To remove the tooth doctor extends well, swinging tooth with slight pressure back and forth. After this expansion tooth can be easily removed.
Sometimes a tooth is placed in very tight hole. In this case, the physician dissects it into separate pieces, and then retrieves each fragment.
In the dental hole in place
extracted tooth formed blood clot which is subsequently converted into fibrous tissue. Fibrous tissue in a few months is transformed into bone.
Tooth extraction is contraindicated during menstruation, in various diseases in the acute form, initial and last months of pregnancy, when taking drugs that lower blood clotting.
In dentistry, the following main types of dental treatment:
- Reconstruction and restoration of teeth in various lesions;
- Treatment of root canals (endodontics);
- Treatment of periodontal disease.
Dental treatment is most often carried out safely (under anesthesia). Endodontics - the most complex of all dental procedures. Delays in treatment can lead to caries pulpitis - inflammation of the dental cavities and periodontitis - an inflammation of the jaw bone. When pulpitis and periodontitis tooth hurts constantly, and any pressure on the tooth increases the pain.
The process of whitening teeth doctor gaskets isolates teeth from the mouth and gums and causes them whitening gel. The bleaching gel usually contains 25-30% hydrogen peroxide. The gel is activated by a laser or lamp light. Then the dentist to strengthen tooth enamel handles teeth fluoride. After one whitening teeth become lighter by eight tones.