Thoracic aorta - the largest artery in the body, which carries blood from the heart.
It is located in the chest, so call her chest.
The structure of the thoracic aorta
Thoracic aorta located in the posterior mediastinum and adjacent to the vertebral column. It is divided into two kinds of branches: parietal and visceral.
By the visceral branches of the thoracic aorta are:
- Esophageal branches, in an amount of 3-6 which are directed towards the wall of the esophagus. They branch off ascending branches, anastomoses with the left ventricular artery, as well as downstream, anastomoses with the inferior thyroid artery.
- Bronchial branches, which in the amount of 2 or more branch with the bronchi. They supply blood to the lung tissue. The end of the branch approach to bronchial lymph nodes, esophagus, pericardium and pleura.
- Pericardial-for bags or pericardial branches, which are responsible for the blood supply to the back surface of the pericardium.
- Mediastinum or mediastinal branches, small and numerous that nourish mediastinal organs, lymph nodes, and connective tissue.
Group parietal branches of the thoracic aorta is made up of:
- Posterior intercostal arteries of 10 pairs. 9 of them are in the intercostal spaces, from the 3rd to the 11th. Lower artery lie beneath the twelfth ribs and called hypochondria. Each artery divides into the spinal branch and the dorsal branch. Each intercostal artery branches from the head to the front edges of the branch feed lines and broad abdominal muscles, intercostal muscles, breast, skin, chest, arm and back, supplied with blood and skin of the back muscles and the spinal cord.
- Upper diaphragmatic arteries of the thoracic aorta in the amount of two pieces that provide blood upper surface of the diaphragm.
The arteries of the chest cavity
- Aortic arch;
- Vertebral artery;
- The left and right common carotid artery;
- Highest intercostal artery;
- Renal artery;
- Common hepatic artery;
- The left subclavian artery;
- Intercostal arteries;
- Superior mesenteric artery;
- Right subclavian artery;
- Lower diaphragmatic artery;
- The left gastric artery.
The most common diseases of the thoracic aorta
The most frequent diseases of the thoracic aorta are aneurysms and thoracic aortic atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis develops thoracic aorta, usually before other forms of atherosclerosis, but a long time can not be manifested. Often it develops simultaneously with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart or the head of atherosclerosis of brain vessels.
The first symptoms of atherosclerosis is usually manifested in the age of 60-70 years, when the aortic wall have largely suffered destruction. Patients complain of burning pain periodically arises in the chest (aortalgii) to increase systolic blood pressure, difficulty swallowing, dizziness.
Often less specific symptoms of atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta is too earlier aging and graying hair, talc on his face, light bar on the outer edge of the iris, the strong growth of hair in the ears.
One of the most dangerous complications of atherosclerosis is an aortic aneurysm.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a condition in which its weakest part bulges or expands. To her bulging causes the blood pressure going through the aorta.
Aneurysms represent a serious threat not only for health, but for the life of the patient, as the aorta can rupture, causing internal bleeding and death. Approximately 30% of patients with rupture of the aneurysm entering the hospital will survive. That is why the thoracic aortic aneurysm should be treated to prevent rupture.
Approximately half of all patients with aneurysms, there are no symptoms. Most people complain of back pain and chest, neck, back and jaw. There is shortness of breath, coughing, hoarseness.
When a large aneurysm process may be involved in the aortic heart valve, whereby there is heart failure.
The most common causes of thoracic aortic aneurysms are:
- Congenital connective tissue disorders (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), cardiovascular system (coarctation of the aorta, heart, tortuosity of the aortic isthmus).
- Such acquired diseases, such as atherosclerosis or after field operations cannulation of the aorta, aortic patches or lines of suture anastomoses prostheses.
- Inflammatory disease (infection of prosthetic aortic noncommunicable and communicable aortrity).