Anus

Anatomy of the anus

Rectum (anus) - is the anus, which is the lower limb of the anal canal, through which the body leaving fecal matter.  Anus
 The anus is surrounded by two layers of muscle membrane - sphincter - regulating its opening and closing. External anal sphincter is formed striated muscle, its ability to manage the activities of the active consciousness. The internal sphincter is a thickening of the kind of smooth muscles of the rectum, and consciousness can not be controlled.

Anus ends anal margin, which is, in fact, a sharp transition of the mucous membrane of the anal canal into the skin of the perineum. This skin, is located just outside the anus, it has a darker hue.

Most of the time the muscles of the anus in a state of contraction, serves as a barrier to the involuntary discharge of feces and flatulentsii. Nasal tone of the anus of a healthy person is 80-100 mm Hg, which corresponds to the pressure inside the lower rectal arteries supplying blood external sphincter and anal canal.

Passage of the stool of the rectum sends a signal to the internal sphincter relaxation - so made the so-called rektoanalny reflex. The possibility of suspending the process of defecation is realized by the conscious contraction of striated muscles of the anus.

The length of the anal canal of an adult varies from 3-5 centimeters, causing his individual peculiarities. The diameter of the anus is also different: it is able to reach from 3 to 6 centimeters. In children, the location of the anus dorsal (located closer to the back), at a distance of 2 cm from the coccyx.

Research Methods anus

In proctology distinguish the following methods of investigation of the anus and rectum:

  • Digital examination;
  • Visual inspection;
  • Sigmoidoscopy;
  • Anorectal manometry;
  • Endosonography;
  • Defekografiya.

Diseases of the anus

There are several types of diseases of the anus. These include:

  • Itching anus. It may be a symptom of cracks, colon polyps, internal hemorrhoids, helminthic infestation, as well as intestinal dysbiosis.
  • Cracks. They are vertical discontinuities surface nature mucosal anus. The appearance of cracks in the anus false desires contribute to the act of defecation and constipation. In this disease symptoms such as pain in the anus, worse during stool passage of the rectum, burning sensation. In some cases, discharge of blood from the anus can also speak about the presence of cracks or hemorrhoids in the rectal area.
  • Perianal hematoma is the formation of dark red hue, located in the anus. The cause of perianal hematoma - rupture of rectal veins during defecation. Treatment of perianal hematoma is performed as a conventional puncture needle, and with the help of mini-surgery under local anesthesia.
  • Hemorrhoids. Accompanied by  Itching anus
 pathological extension of the hemorrhoidal veins, coagulation and thickening of the venous blood in the rectum, which leads to the formation of hemorrhoids. At rest, they are reduced straining - enlarged and swollen, with pain in the anus aggravated.
  • Paraproctitis. This form of disease of the anus is an inflammation of the adipose tissue surrounding the rectum. The main role in the occurrence of infection paraproctitis played by streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli. In rare cases, the cause of the disease can become operational or persons rectum.
  • Tumors. Malignant tumors of the anus occur infrequently, not exceeding 6% of all cancer cases, however, each of them requires appropriate treatment. Symptoms of colon cancer, are worth paying attention to: the emergence of specific mucus, blood from the anus, mixed with stool, itching in the anus, feeling of "foreign body", constipation, change in shape of tape-like feces.

Prevention of diseases of the anus

In order to prevent manifestations of cracks, hemorrhoids and other diseases of the anus and rectum is recommended:

  • Normalize food, enriching your diet foods rich in fiber (fruits, vegetables, cereals). We should not abuse the spicy, spicy dishes and alcohol;
  • Follow a regular bowel movement;
  • Avoid overloading during defecation. It is forbidden for a long presence on the toilet seat (it is enough to give up the habit of reading books in the closet), as well as excessive straining;
  • Watch the hygiene of the anus, possibly carrying a wet toilet after each act of defecation;
  • Normalize locomotor activity. Especially this recommendation for the people employed in the "sedentary" work. Practice 10-15-minute breaks, during which useful to do physical activity.




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