The abdominal aorta
Abdominal aorta. general characteristics
The abdominal aorta is a continuation of the thoracic aorta. It is located at the front surface of the lumbar vertebrae, the left side of the midline.
Abdominal aorta begins at the XII vertebra and reaches IV-V lumbar vertebrae, and then divides to form two iliac arteries. At the same time the place of the division in the direction of the pelvic moves unpaired median sacral artery.
Furthermore, the aorta has taps, which are known as visceral and parietal branches of the abdominal aorta.
The branches of the abdominal aorta
Many branches of the aorta allow it to feed on the blood coming to her organs. The branches are divided into groups. By the parietal branches include:
- Lower diaphragmatic artery. This big guy vessel responsible for the blood supply to the lower surface of the diaphragm and adrenal glands;
- Lumbar artery representing two pairs of large vessels. They supply blood to the muscles of the abdomen, back, as well as skin, tissue and spinal cord.
By the visceral aortic vessels are as paired groups of branches and unpaired. The guys are the arteries, described below:
- Average adrenal. Delivers blood to the adrenal gland;
- Renal. Located at the rear of the inferior vena cava. Approaching the gate of the kidney, gives a branch in the form of lower adrenal artery supplying the adrenal gland.
Unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta following:
- Celiac trunk, which is a vessel length of 1-2 cm, departs from the aorta near the XII vertebra. It is divided into three other artery: a) left pancreas, stomach supply blood to the body, as well as giving the 12 branches that feed the esophagus; b) The total liver, consisting of two arteries (the actual liver, supplying blood to the gallbladder and liver and gastro that nourishes the pancreas, duodenum, and (through gastroepiploic branch) of the stomach wall and itself greater omentum); c) splenic supplying the spleen, stomach wall, partially pancreas;
- Superior mesenteric. Originates in an area II lumbar vertebra, passes through the front surface of the duodenum, and then divided into several branches around the iliac fossa. Branches in turn nourish the pancreas, jejunum, blind, colon and ileum;
- Inferior mesenteric. This artery originates in the region III lumbar vertebra and gives several branches that supply blood to the colon and rectum.
Diseases of the abdominal aorta
The most common
include diseases that affect the abdominal aorta, are described below:
1. Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta. The cavity of the vessel affected by this disease is covered by lipoproteins, which slow down the flow of blood. In the future, possible growth of connective tissue, which is replaced by atherosclerotic plaques. Symptoms include abdominal aortic atherosclerosis attacks of abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, and constipation. Pain can last up to 3 hours (in severe cases). In most cases, their intensity is reduced when receiving antispasmodic drugs, but later may cause diarrhea, the frequency of which up to 3 times a day. The feces while often can be found undigested food residue. In milder cases of abdominal aortic atherosclerosis attacks are limited to vague abdominal pain or right upper quadrant, the emergence of belching and constipation;
. Abdominal aortic aneurysm is an extension of the vessel in the part where the wall is the most weakened
. The abdominal aorta is thus considered to be the most vulnerable vessel, t
. up to three-quarters of all diseases of this nature accounted for abdominal aorta
. Lack of timely treatment could rupture the abdominal aorta and bleeding, including fatal
. Another danger is the development of aneurysm thrombus, which is associated with the violation of blood flow in the affected vessels
. It is therefore important time to pay attention to the early symptoms of the disease: the appearance of a pulsating education in the abdomen, the occurrence of severe back pain, vomiting, and in some cases, to change the color of urine and blanching limbs
. The most vulnerable to the appearance of an aneurysm in general and rupture of the abdominal aorta in particular, are patients with hypertension, inflammation of the walls of the aorta, a congenital connective tissue diseases, and infectious diseases affected, causing damage to the vessel walls
. Great risk of atherosclerosis in patients over the age of 60 years, in smokers and in patients with high blood pressure