Veins of the lower extremities
The venous system
lower extremities represented by three human systems: perforating veins, superficial and deep systems.
The main function of the perforating veins is a compound of the superficial and deep veins of the lower extremities. They got its name from the fact that it is perforated (permeate) anatomical partitions (fascia and muscle).
Most of them are equipped with valves located nadfastsialno through which blood passes from the superficial veins to the deep. Approximately half of the communicating veins of the foot valve has not, so blood flows away from the foot of both deep vein into the surface, and vice versa. All depends on the physiological conditions of outflow and functional load.
Superficial veins of the lower extremities
Superficial venous system originates in the lower extremities of the venous plexus of the toes that form the venous network of the foot and the back of the skin back arch of the foot. From her start lateral and medial marginal vein, passing respectively small and the great saphenous vein. The plantar venous network is connected to the back of the venous arch of the foot with metatarsus and deep veins of the fingers.
Great saphenous Vienna is the longest vein in the body, which contains 5-10 pairs of valves. Its diameter is equal to the normal state of 3-5 mm. Vienna developed more ahead of the medial malleolus of the foot and rises to the groin, where it joins the femoral vein. Sometimes big Vienna on the shin and thigh may be represented by several trunks.
Small subcutaneous Vienna originates in the back of the lateral malleolus and rises to the popliteal vein. Sometimes small Vienna rises above the popliteal fossa and is connected to the femoral, deep femoral vein or the great saphenous vein. Therefore, before the surgery, the doctor needs to know the exact location of the confluence of the small veins in the deep to make the cut shot directly over the fistula.
Thigh-knee Vienna is a constant influx of estuarine small veins and empties it into the great saphenous vein. Also in the small vein runs a large number of skin and subcutaneous veins, mainly in the lower third of the leg.
The deep veins of the lower extremities
In the deep veins it flows off more than 90% of the blood. Begin the deep veins of the lower limbs in the back of the foot with metatarsal veins where blood flowing in the veins of tibialis anterior. The rear and front tibial veins merge at third of the leg, forming the popliteal vein, which rises above and falls into the femoral-popliteal canal, already called the femoral vein. Above groin femoral Vienna is connected to the external iliac vein and directed to the heart.
Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities
The most common diseases of lower limb veins include:
- Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins;
- Vein thrombosis of the lower limbs.
a pathological condition called superficial vessels of small or large subcutaneous veins caused by valvular insufficiency or venous ectasia. Typically, the disease develops after twenty years, mainly in women. It is believed that varicose has a genetic predisposition.
Varicose may be purchased (ascending stage) or hereditary (descending stage). Also, distinguish the primary and secondary varicose veins. In the first case, the function of deep venous vessels is not broken, in the second case, the disease is characterized by deep-vein occlusion, or valvular insufficiency.
On clinical grounds are three stages of varicose veins:
- Stage compensation. The feet can be seen coiled varicose veins without any other additional symptoms. At this stage of the disease, patients tend not to go to the doctor.
- Stage subcompensation. In addition to varicose patients complain of transient swelling in the ankles and feet, pasty, a sense of fullness in the leg muscles, fatigue, cramps in the calf muscles (mostly at night).
- Decompensated. In addition to these symptoms, patients have ekzemopodobnye dermatitis and itchy skin. When running the form of varicose sores may appear and strong pigmentation of the skin, resulting from small petechial hemorrhages and hemosiderin deposits.
Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins is a complication of varicose veins of the lower extremities. The etiology of this disease has not been studied sufficiently. Phlebitis can independently develop and lead to venous thrombosis, or the disease results from infection and joins the primary superficial vein thrombosis.
Especially dangerous ascending thrombophlebitis of the great saphenous vein, so there is a threat to hit a floating part of a blood clot in the external iliac vein or deep femoral vein, which can cause thromboembolism in the pulmonary artery vessels.
Deep vein thrombosis is a very dangerous disease and poses a threat to the life of the patient. Thrombosis of the main veins of the thigh and pelvis often originates in the deep veins of the lower extremities.
There are the following reasons for the development of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs:
- Bacterial infection;
- Excessive exercise or trauma;
- Prolonged bed rest (e.g., neurological, therapeutic or surgical diseases);
- Birth control pills;
- The postpartum period;
- Cancer, particularly cancer of the stomach, lung and pancreas.
Deep vein thrombosis is accompanied by edema legs, or the entire leg, patients feel a constant heaviness in the legs. The skin becomes glossy illness, through her clear picture emerges of the saphenous veins. It is also characteristic distribution of the pain of the inner thigh, lower leg, foot and lower leg pain when dorsiflexion of the foot. Moreover, the clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs are observed only in 50% of cases, the remaining 50% may not cause any visible symptoms.