Oysters - it bivalves, representatives of invertebrate marine life.
Outwardly, they sink asymmetric shape. One wing has a large convex shape, and with its help shellfish attached to the rock or stone. The second fold somewhat smaller, flatter and thin. On the inner surface of the shell is covered with a layer of pearl, and inside it is an edible shellfish. Taste oysters different - from sweet to salty, and may vary by region and habitat protection mollusk.
The main commercial species is an oyster that lives in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Distinguish about fifty species of oysters which have a classification according to weight and dimensional characteristics. For example, there are oyster number 00, which include the largest-sized clams. But oysters from number 0 to number 5 has the smallest size. The most common European oyster №3, weighing an average of 80-100 Distinguish Adriatic oyster, rock, Portuguese, Black Sea, the plate, the Japanese giant, and others. In addition, there are oysters ennobled (refined or grown in special conditions ), and are grown in conditions of total sea.
Living as an oyster colonies, and one by one, at a depth of 1-70 meters. They are attached to rocks, sand and rocky ground or rocks. There are even so-called "oyster beds" (shellfish populations, which are at a distance from the coast), and "coastal settlements" shellfish.
Archaeological excavations indicate that oysters were used as food since ancient times. It is known that they were bred in China as early as the 4th millennium BC. In Europe, the oyster was first mentioned in 500 BC in ancient Greece and Rome.
Especially widespread popularity they received during the reign of King Louis XVI, which has led to the fact that in the mid-19th century, their population began to disappear. But there is a silver lining: the oysters learned to breed artificially. For this oyster babies were caught and placed in a specially prepared plant, where their growth is artificially controlled.
In pre-revolutionary Russia oyster widespread as restaurant meals, and eat it mainly wealthier strata of the population. In Soviet times, the demand for them fell sharply and had begun their imports from Cuba in the 70's had to stop. The dish is not popular even in restaurants. Here, it should be noted, played a great role lack of culinary practices and some disgust, as you must have a living oyster.
Oysters in cooking
In France and Belgium, the oysters are a delicacy, and their food should be consumed in a living form. If the oyster is dead, then it is spoiled and there can not be. The most important criterion of freshness is a tightly closed shell. But if in the sink there at least a small gap, then the oyster already stale, and there can not be. Open oyster oyster knife or special medical scalpel. It is administered in a place where the leaf connected to a lock, and carried through the middle and oysters with the flat side of the shell to the muscles, locking flaps. When the shell is opened, you must touch the edge of where the line can be discerned dusky cilia. If the oyster is alive - she flinch when she will remain fixed, it means that she is dead and is not suitable for food.
Eating oysters is very simple - lightly sprayed with lemon juice and a "drink" with deep, curved sides of the leaf. Seized an oyster usually black bread (in France it is imported solely for the oysters), and washed down with a light beer or dry white wine.
In a number of countries producing canned oysters, which are already roasted, or boiled semi-finished product which, like mussels and crabs, are used in salads and soups in chopped form. They do not have useful properties of fresh oysters, and they taste quite different.
The composition and caloric content of oysters
100 g of the oyster contains 82 06 g of water, 9, 45 g protein, 4, 95 g carbohydrate, 2, 3 fats, 1, 23 g of ashes; vitamins retinol (A), thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (PP), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12), vitamin C; macronutrients: phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium; trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron.
Calories in oysters is low and amounts to about 78 kcal per 100 g
The main benefit is their oyster rich mineral and vitamin content (vitamins, nicotinic acid, niacin, iodine, iron, phosphorus, selenium, copper, zinc, etc.). In addition, a large number of easily digestible protein and low calorie makes it possible to classify oysters them to the dietary food.
Useful properties of oysters are to the normalization of the nervous system, strengthening the bone benefits of, improving the function of the liver and kidneys.
American scientists have found a part of the oyster ceramides - fatty acids, which are allowed to open one more positive property oysters - the inhibition of growth of cancer cells.
In addition, the joint work of Italian and American scientists use the oysters is that in their composition present unique amino acids that stimulate the production of sexual hormones.
Oysters are contraindicated for people suffering from bowel diseases with frequent violations of the chair, the spleen and stomach. Also, raw oysters are not recommended for use in pregnant and lactating women.