Sprutovye or octopus - cephalopods representatives of the suborder Incirrina, living in the water, some of which are found only at great depths.
In nature, there are about 200 species of octopus, some of them are poisonous. Their closest relatives are squid and cuttlefish, and the future - all of gastropods and bivalves.
The bag-shaped body of an octopus called the mantle, it is soft and short, oval rear and front spliced with a large head, the top of which are large protruding eyes.
At 8 octopus long and muscular dotted suckers tentacles arranged around the tiny mouth, surrounded by two chitinous jaws - beak needed to grind food. The pharynx is the clam special grater - radula through which food is ground to a pulp as completely swallow large chunks of octopus can not.
It is noteworthy that at the heart of this mollusk 3, the first of which drives the blue blood all over his body, and the other two push blood through the gills.
Octopus possess an unusual capacity - they can change shape, as have their body bone and color because it contained its skin cells with different pigments, which under the influence of impulses from the CNS can be stretched or compressed. Usually these shellfish brown, but if they scare - color becomes white when angry - red.
Previously used mollusks humanity ink for writing, these days are getting a light brown coloring agent - sepia, which is used by artists and photographers taking pictures of "antique". Meat fresh or frozen octopus used for cooking in many countries around the world.
The nutritional value of the octopus
100 g of meat octopus contains:
- Proteins - 30 g;
- Carbohydrates - 4, 4 g;
- Cholesterol - 96 mg;
- Saturated fats - 0, 5 g;
- Monounsaturated fatty acids - 0, 3 g;
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids - 0, 5 g;
- Sugar - 0 g;
- Lipids 2, 1 g;
- Sodium - 460 mg;
- Potassium - 630 mg;
- Dietary Fiber - g 0;
- Retinol - 300 IU;
- Vitamin C - 8 mg;
- Vitamin D - 0 g;
- Calcium - 106 mg;
- Iron - 9, 5 mg;
- Vitamin B6 - 0, 6 mg;
- Vitamin B12 - 36 g;
- Magnesium - 60 mg.
Calories 100 g of meat octopus is 164 kcal. The mollusk meat, when properly heat treated, is a rich source of vitamins, proteins, and amino acids. On the shelves of grocery stores and markets can be found frozen octopus, the content of useful substances in which, because of the frost, much less in comparison with the fresh counterpart.
It is important to know how to cook octopus, because food poisoning cases of shellfish meat are not uncommon. Moreover, as in any other seafood, it contained microscopic parasites, to destroy which require careful heat treatment.
Eating octopus food
In many countries, octopus meat is an ingredient for the preparation of national dishes. For example, in Japan, it is added to the land and eat takoyaki or alive, slicing thin slices and eating within a few minutes, until the muscle tentacles konvulsiruyut.
In Spain, the octopus made cooking, in Tunis from it prepare salads, in Malta it stuffed vegetables and stewed and boiled spaghetti with a sauce of ink this mollusk in Andalusia served with garlic sauce or grilled.
Octopus - recipes
Before preparing any dish for recipes described below, the octopus should be thoroughly washed from the remnants of mucus and ink. Traditional Portuguese feijoada, the basic ingredients for which are meat and beans, many gourmets prefer to cook with seafood, including shellfish.
To prepare the food according to the recipe of octopus (1, 5 kg) must be cooked with the addition of water, 1 tablespoon olive oil 1 onion, as well as pre-soak 1 cup of beans, dry and then cook on low heat. In a saucepan or cauldron must be put out of 5 cloves of crushed garlic, chopped 4 onions and carrots cut into circles 3 6 tbsp olive oil and 2 tablespoons melted lard. Vegetables seasoned with salt and black pepper to taste, and towards the end of quenching poured half a glass of dry white wine, and brought to a boil. Sliced octopus and finished beans are added to the vegetables, pour a glass of water and stew on low heat. After 20 minutes, a few spoonfuls of beans you need to pull out and crush with a fork, then put back into feydzhoadu and simmer until thick mass. The finished dish is served with chopped parsley.
No less tasty dish is octopus with white wine. To make it, you need 1 kg of fresh or frozen octopus, purified by the suction cups, head, viscera and beak, as well as the mucus and the ink drop for a few seconds in boiling water. In parallel to the skillet heats 4-5 tbsp olive oil, in which the carcasses are stacked purified mollusc and lightly roasted for 7-10 minutes. By the semi-added diced octopus into thin rings 2 onions, 20-25 g of crushed peanuts, salt and spices to taste, mixed and poured 85 ml of dry white wine. Saucepan closed with a lid, a dish in it languish on low heat for 15 minutes.
In China prepare stuffed octopus recipe is quite simple to reproduce a dish at home is not difficult, even for the novice cook. Before you cook the octopus, it should be thoroughly washed and remove the dark skin, the tentacles are left. The first thing you need to cook 100 g shrimp, cut into small cubes 2 tomatoes, 1 stalk shallots and 50g tuber of fennel, mixed with each other, to add to them 60 grams of leaves of oregano and basil and season with salt, dry garlic and pepper to taste. Octopus is laid on a Teflon pan, each of its tentacles stuffed with the mixture of shrimp and vegetables. Ready for baking clam smeared with butter and lightly watered red wine (a quarter cup). Bake in the oven for 15-20 minutes.
Today, octopus meat is an ingredient for the preparation of many dishes, from Japanese sushi and ending with various salads. Properly cooked shellfish are not only very tasty but also useful, because it is rich in protein, vitamins B, C and D, as well as omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, which play to maintain the human health role.