Mushrooms belong to the family of fungi agaricales plate type. The name "mushroom" is derived from the French word «champignon» - mushroom.
Biological characteristics and distribution
Mushrooms grow on moist soil with rich organic humus. Some of these fungi are found on the bark of trees and anthills.
There are several main groups of mushrooms:
- forests that grow on the edges of forests;
- soil that grows on bezrastitelnyh spaces;
- gerbofily grow among the grasses;
- or desert halophytes.
The greatest number of fungi growing in the steppe and forest steppe of Europe and on the prairies of Australia, Africa and North America.
Cap mushroom massive and dense, covered with scales and has a color from pure white to brownish tint. The plates of the fungus are white, but eventually darken to pink and gray. Stipe thick and smooth, and the flesh can be both white and reddish yellow.
The first mushrooms were grown artificially in Italy. In the 17th century the French began to actively grow these mushrooms in basements and other underground areas.
Currently, mushrooms are growing throughout Europe, North America, Africa, Australia and some Asian countries.
Caloric content of mushrooms is similar to other types of mushrooms and allows their use as an ingredient in salt-free diet food.
Caloric value of these mushrooms is 27 kcal, and they contain 4 g protein, 0, 1 g of carbohydrate and 1 g of fat.
The beneficial properties of mushrooms
The use of mushrooms is high due to the composition, which is rich in minerals and vitamins. Mushrooms contain cellulose, sugar, vitamin B, D and E, as well as iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and phosphorus.
Mushrooms have antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory actions.
As a result, medical studies have revealed the beneficial properties of mushrooms in the treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and heart disease.
Mushrooms are useful because of their content of pantothenic acid, which relieves fatigue and has anti-stress effect. Organic acids, iron and niacin useful for strengthening the immune system and promote the protective functions of the body.
Mushrooms proven benefit for people with diabetes, as these mushrooms do not contain sugar and fat. The content of thiamine and riboflavin in mushrooms several times higher than in other vegetables.
Regular consumption of mushrooms can improve the condition of skin, hair and nails, but also helps to maintain a certain body weight and muscle tone.
The use of mushrooms in food
Mushrooms are used in various dishes.
These mushrooms well with vegetables, meat and confectionery. From the 20th century in Europe, this fungus is frequently used for the preparation of fish dishes, Julienne, pizzas and pies.
Mushrooms can be eaten fried, stewed, baked and boiled. This fungus obtained delicious sauces, soups, soufflés and sauces.
Fresh mushrooms can be stored in refrigerator up to 5 days, if they are wrapped in a special film and placed in a container. The raw mushrooms a lot of nutrients, and can be drier, and then prepare a variety of spices and seasonings.
Mushrooms can be confused with poisonous pale and white fly agaric toadstool. Mushrooms, unlike poisonous mushrooms have a white plate on the leg of Volvo and yellowing of the pressure on the skin.
Since these mushrooms contain a large amount of chitin, then they should not be used in early childhood because they are poorly digested.
People with diseases of the pancreas, and the digestive tract should be to limit the use of mushrooms.
Mushrooms are grown in the forest and on open soil, must always be subjected to a heat treatment to destroy harmful substances that they could absorb.