Breadfruit - monoecious fruit tree of the mulberry family, genus artocarpus.
Homeland breadfruit are the Western Pacific islands. It is believed that initially it grows in New Guinea and then spread to Oceania.
Breadfruit - the plant is quite large and fast-growing. Under favorable conditions it can reach a height of 26 meters, but mostly tree is not above 20 meters. Externally, the plant can be compared to an oak. Cora had a smooth, gray. The branches are varied - long thin or thick short bitch.
Depending on the climatic conditions of the tree foliage is deciduous or evergreen. The shape of the trees is also very diverse. There are pinnate and trees, and whole. The leaves of the plants are big and thick. All parts, including immature breadfruit, contain a milky juice - latex, which is pretty tacky to the touch.
Blossoms breadfruit greenish flowers, gathered in large inflorescences bisexual. Male flowers bloom first, but rather to look inconspicuous, collected in elongated inflorescences. Female flowers are collected into large florets as mace. After pollination, the female inflorescences, they coalesce into one fruit, which in appearance can be compared with knobbly melon. As ripening breadfruit, their color changes from green to brownish-yellow.
The fruits of the tree is quite large, and their weight sometimes exceeds 4 kg and a diameter of 30 cm they reach. Green fruits have a solid structure, with fiber starchy pulp, and when fruits ripen, they become softer flesh is sweet in taste and acquires kremovo- yellow.
Breadfruit is quite drought resistant and can withstand up to three months without irrigation, but that tree bears good fruit, it is desirable to regularly watered soil. Undemanding tree and temperature conditions, and thrives at temperatures from +40 to 0 degrees.
The favorable climatic conditions breadfruit fruits up to 9 months of the year, bringing 150 to 700 fruits per year, making only a short break for three months. The lifespan of the tree is 60-70 years.
An interesting fact is that the breadfruit tree pollinating insects do not, and fruit bats - bats, which in Latin is called Pteropodidae.
Europeans learned about the breadfruit tree in the 17th century by English navigator William Dampier, who said that the natives use it for food. In the late 18th century, after the famine, Jamaica came up with breadfruit plant as a source of cheap and high-calorie food for the slaves. For this purpose, sent to Tahiti famous "Bounty", but the seedlings, which he collected, to the West Indies and have not reached, and the first breadfruit trees to the New World brought the ship "Providence" in 1793. Today breadfruit widespread in many tropical areas.
The composition of the breadfruit tree
Dried breadfruit contain 76, 7 and 4% carbohydrates, 05% proteins. Its calorie is 331 kcal per 100g of product, and nutritional value of 14% sugar, 60-80% starch, 0, 2-0, 8% fat.
Mostly used for practical purposes breadfruit. Using them in cooking the most diverse: they are boiled, baked, zasushivat, candy, eat fresh, and even use for cooking pancakes. An interesting fact is that the unripe fruits are used as vegetables, and mature - like fruit. The degree of maturity can be understood by speakers on the skin drops of latex.
The taste breadfruit can be compared with potatoes. In many areas, particularly on oceanic islands, they are an important staple food. Since fresh fruit pulp perishable, it was invented many ways of harvesting the fruit for the future. For example, from the fruit make biscuits that do not deteriorate over several years. And if peeled fruit buried in banana leaves, and Heliconia plants, they ferment and turn into a doughy mass which is edible for a long time.
In the food consumed as breadfruit seeds that are eaten roasted or boiled with salt.
Apart from the fruit used wood and leaves of the tree. Leaves and fruits successfully fed cattle (goats and pigs). A timber is highly resistant to parasites, so it's perfect for the construction of boats.