Bread prepared by baking, frying using test or due to steam treatment.
The basis of this product must be present two ingredients - flour and water, and the rest is optional depending on the formulation. Most other products are added to bread and salt, yeast or baking powder. The flour used for the dough preparation, usually made from wheat, rye, corn and barley.
Bread can be used either individually or as part of a sandwich, by depositing an oil, jam, honey, etc.
The history of the product dates back several thousand years. In the early Neolithic, he was like a paste of roasted grains and water. In some cultures, a method of making bread is relevant to this day.
The bread-based dough prepared for the first time in Egypt, where it was possible to bring a special kind of wheat that does not require pre-drying and roasting and containing gluten in the required amount.
Variety types of bread hit in ancient times. For Athens, the author of Ancient Greece, in the works described cake loaf, bread and curls of different varieties of the product.
In the Middle Ages in Europe, the bread was not only part of the diet, but also an element of tableware. For example, a standard serving of supply meant a small piece of stale bread, performs the function of the plate. After the meal, it was customary to eat them.
In all countries, white breads were the prerogative of the rich strata of the population, while the poor are content with rye bread. Only in the 20th century completely changed the preferences, and priorities have changed since: wealthy person to monitor the health and chose black, more useful bread was poor enough to receive the nutrients and satisfy your hunger, making them the choice fell on the white.
Today, the variety of grades of flour products is impressive. Each country has traditionally been considered a particular variety:
- for Russia, Ukraine and Belarus - a loaf;
- US - bagel;
- Germany - pretzels;
- France - brioche or baguette;
- Italy - ciabatta;
- Israel - matzah, etc.
The composition, nutritional value and calorie bread
The bread, especially fresh, contains a huge list of vitamins. This is especially vitamins B, of which it contains in abundance: B9, B6, B2, B5, B1. Moreover, the composition is enriched bread containing choline, beta-carotene and vitamin PP, E, H, A. Along with this surprisingly extensive list of minerals contained in the bread, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iodine, copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, calcium - almost all the useful part of the periodic table.
Calorie bread varies and depends on the composition. Thus, caloric rye bread equals 181 kcal per 100g ratio of proteins, carbohydrates and fats with 6 6 g, 34, 1 and 2 g, 2 g, respectively. Highest calorific in lung wheat bread - about 381 Kcal per 100 g Nutritional Information of this sort: 9, 2 g of protein, 5, 2 grams of fat, 78 g carbohydrates 3.
Useful properties of bread
To say that the benefits of bread does not differ from grade to grade, you can not. Included in the product component is determined not only by its caloric content, but also useful qualities that bread in itself carries. The white bread content of nutrients is minimized. It is believed that at the grain processing that is necessary for the production of flour, lost most of the nutrients contained in the shell of the grain. This bread is usually soft, lush, but its composition is replete with starch and calories. The benefits of this kind of bread is minimal, because the percentage of nutrients in it hardly higher than 30% of the original.
However, this does not mean that the bread on the table should be discarded. The main thing - to choose the right kind of baked product. One of the most useful types of bread is considered to be "gray", with the addition of rye flour. It is slower to digest and contains more vitamins and minerals than his white counterpart, to him, to a greater extent inherent beneficial properties of bread.
Ideal for fans of bakery products - bread with bran. The use of bread with bran due to their ability to absorb allergens and toxins, strengthen the immune system and supply the body with much needed fiber, protein and vitamins. Proved that regular consumption of bread containing bran, thereby reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal disease and atherosclerosis. In addition, those who prefer white bread with bran, rarely experiencing difficulties associated with being overweight. Nutritionists recommend eating this sort of bread patients with hypertension and constipation, gallstones, obesity.
Gaining popularity unleavened bread on the hop leaven has a number of useful features: it has a mild sedative and choleretic, anti-inflammatory and expectorant action. The use of this product increases the appetite and helps to normalize the menstrual cycle in women.
Hazardous properties of bread
As noted above, grain damage is excessive use those grades that contain extra calories, without being enriched with nutrients. Many nutritionists and physicians are of the opinion that the development of many diseases triggered by the use of products made of flour in amounts several times higher than normal.
Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these products causes an exacerbation of cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. In addition, frequent switching of white bread in the diet several times increases the likelihood of diabetes. It is noted that the hereditary factor in this case is not important - the cause of development and progression of the disease lies exclusively in the quality and quantity of food consumed.
Finally, damage to the bread for daily use that increased acidity inherent in wheat, a devastating effect on tooth enamel.
In other words, damage to grain, as often happens, not the product itself, but the lack of action during its consumption.