Black pepper - one of the most common spices, which must exist in every home owner.
Black pepper - shrub from the family list. Homeland plants are island Malabar in India, so it is often called the "Malabar berry".
The fruit of the tree - green peas, which darken during processing. Depending on the time of harvest and production technology also get red, green and white pepper. All varieties of peppers used in cooking, but the biggest popular black pepper.
In the wild bush climbs up, wrapping her trees. Since then, both began to cultivate pepper, plantations for him establish special poles, limiting plant growth up to 4-5 meters. In general, tall shrub can reach 15 meters. Leaves have a length of up to 10 centimeters. After flowering plant brings round fruit, which initially have a green color, and after becoming yellow or red.
The length of the brush is 14 centimeters, which may contain 20-30 drupes. To get the black pepper, fruits are picked unripe, and already during the drying in the sun, they shrivel and blacken. The ripe fruit of the plant is soaked in water, remove the soft pericarp and white pepper is obtained, which is not as pungent as black, but more fragrant and has also enjoyed success in cooking.
In India, pepper is grown in ancient times, it was well known in ancient Egypt, China, Rome and Greece. In the Middle Ages, pepper highly prized and widely used in cooking in Europe, despite its high cost. At that time, a monopoly on supplies belonged to the merchants of Venice and Genoa. After that, the right to supply pepper to Europe appropriated the Portuguese, and later - the Dutch.
To date, the largest producer of pepper is India, Brazil and Indonesia. These countries have grown more than 40 thousand tons of pepper a year. In addition, black pepper is grown in Sumatra, Sri Lanka, Java, Kalimantan and other tropical countries.
The use black pepper in cooking
Of all the spices black pepper was the most widely known. In cooking, it is used as a hammer, whole peppercorns, and as part of various spice blends. By the properties of ground black pepper include more intense flavor, but it fizzles out quickly if it is not stored in an airtight container.
Add the peppers in almost all dishes - soups, gravies, sauces, meat, salads, pickles, sausages, beans, and vegetable dishes. Also, it is traditionally used in the preparation of all kinds of meat, game and fish, in cooking.
The composition and caloric content of black pepper
100 g Black pepper 12 contains 5 g of water, 25, 3 grams of fiber, 10, 4 g protein, 38 g carbohydrate 6, 3, 3 grams of fat, 4, 5 g ash vitamins: beta-carotene (A) , thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (PP), choline (B4), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), ascorbic acid (C), tocopherol (E), phylloquinone (C); macronutrients: phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium; trace elements fluorine, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, and iron.
Calorie black pepper is 250 kcal per 100g of product.
Use black pepper
Useful properties of black pepper highly prized since ancient times. For example, the ancient Indian healers have used it in the treatment of cough, sore throat, flu, asthma, and as a painkiller. And the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, Democritus, and Pliny the Elder described the benefits of black pepper in his writings.
Black pepper has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, bactericidal, anthelmintic, expectorant and diuretic. It increases resistance to stress and builds the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine and respiratory systems.
The structure includes pepper alkaloid called capsaicin, which gives it a distinctive pungent flavor and stimulates the metabolism, stimulates appetite, restores the pancreas and stomach, thins the blood, preventing the formation of blood clots, reduces blood pressure.
Doctors recommend to use black pepper with fatigue, stress and depression, chronic indigestion, loss of appetite, colds, fever, high temperature, vitiligo, obesity, metabolic disorders.
Harm black pepper
It is not recommended to use this product in case of individual intolerance. It may cause harm to the black pepper as gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer, acute inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, anemia, after surgery on the intestines and stomach.