General information about the disease
Whooping cough is one of the most common infectious diseases. Its pathogens are highly susceptible both children and adults. Suffice it to say that in people with weakened immune systems in contact with the sick person more likely to get whooping cough is close to 100%.
The causative agent of the disease - pertussis bacillus - infects only humans. Infection occurs through airborne droplets, and as bacteria carriers can act even completely healthy people. At particular risk are young children and preschool children, who have not yet had time to acquire specific immunity. Note also that the whooping cough in children under one year represents a serious danger to the life and health of the baby.
When ingested infectious agents to penetrate deep into the branches of the bronchial tree where they are attached to the walls of the respiratory tract and begin their destructive activities. At first, patients have only mild inflammation, but after a few days, whooping cough, symptoms that progress rapidly, leading to the development of toxins. In the future, they get into the blood spread throughout the body and cause serious complications. In particular, it is known that toxins irritate the respiratory system and central nervous system. As a result, patients become very irritable, unable to sleep at night, lose their appetite.
Whooping cough - symptoms and clinical picture
The initial period of infection resembles conventional OCR. Whooping cough feeling:
- fever (usually minor - to 37, 5 degrees);
- slight indisposition;
- rare dry cough;
- mucus from the nose.
Despite the relative harmlessness of the symptoms of whooping cough, the patient in this period represents the greatest danger to others. Even slight contact therewith certain sick not less than 90% of persons susceptible to pertussis.
In 12-14 days appear characteristic signs of whooping cough. Patients begin spasmodic attacks when coughing replaced by whistling breath, which then reverts to cough. In severe forms of whooping cough in adults and children can cause from 2 to 15 cycles of "cough-breath" during one attack. Cough shock is so severe that the patient is blue skin of the face and swollen neck veins. In such a period of whooping cough, treatment is not monitored by experts, can cause respiratory arrest, or clonic-tonic seizures (jerking of the whole body) in infants.
Depending on the severity of pertussis, a sick person is experiencing from 5 to 50 seizures a day. At preschool age, they often provoke severe vomiting. Spasmodic cough lasts about one month, after which the disease becomes non-hazardous to health form. However, the cough is observed in this period, but it is not jerky and runs itself in a couple of weeks.
Treatment for whooping cough
Children under one year should be required to be treated in a hospital, where specialists will analyze and will be able to whooping cough in time to prevent the development of life-threatening conditions. Also in the hospital treated and those children whose infection has led to the appearance of complications. Adult patients are usually treated at home, as whooping cough in adults rarely causes any serious consequences.
What is important to remember in the treatment of whooping cough in children? First of all, parents need to establish an environment that will minimize the likelihood of spasmodic attacks. The latter can be triggered by the most minor factors, starting with the loud conversation of adults and finishing unexpected sharp movements. In addition, it should be thoroughly ventilate the room in which the patient is a child.
Antibiotics advisable in the early stages of the disease when the drug is still able to suppress the development of the pathogen. If whooping cough in children progressed to spasmodic attacks, antibiotics are completely ineffective.
During the treatment of whooping cough in children taking erythromycin, azithromycin, allergy medications, antihistamines (pipolfen, diphenhydramine, tavegil). The dosage is chosen by the attending physician based on the patient's condition and age. To liquefy thick mucus, which is released during coughing, used inhalation, but remember that they are not recommended for children under 3 years.
Prevention of pertussis
Children aged 3 months to 3 years old, without a history of pertussis vaccination is appointed. The course consists of prevention of 3 intramuscular injections are made every 1, 5 months. The vaccine or completely prevents the development of whooping cough (in 80% of cases) or prevent the emergence of serious complications if the baby is still infected. When the diagnosis of pertussis treated at home or in the hospital held up as long as the patient will not dangerous to others. In the absence of this complication occurs in about 25 days of illness.