Brief description of the disease
Vascular insufficiency - a violation of local or systemic circulation, based on the insufficiency of the blood vessels, in turn caused by the violation of their permeability, reduction in tone, volume of blood passing through them.
Deficiency can be systemic or regional (local) - depending on how the spread offense. Depending on the pace of the disease can be acute and chronic vascular insufficiency.
Pure vascular insufficiency is rare, often simultaneously with vascular insufficiency symptoms manifested cardiac muscle insufficiency. Developing cardio-vascular insufficiency because of the fact that the heart muscle and muscles of blood vessels often affect the same factors. Sometimes cardio vascular insufficiency and secondary heart abnormality occurs due to poor muscle power (lack of blood, low blood pressure in the arteries).
The cause of the disease are usually the blood circulation in the veins and arteries, caused by different reasons.
Mostly acute vascular insufficiency develops due to craniocerebral injuries and general, various heart diseases, blood loss in pathological conditions, such as acute poisoning, severe infection, extensive burns, organic lesions of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency.
The symptoms of vascular insufficiency
Manifested acute vascular insufficiency as fainting, shock or collapse.
Fainting - the most mild form of disease. The symptoms of vascular insufficiency in a swoon: weakness, nausea, darkening of the eyes, a rapid loss of consciousness. Pulse weak and rare, the pressure is reduced, pale skin, the muscles are relaxed, no cramps.
When you collapse and shock the patient is in most cases in the minds, but his reaction inhibited. There are complaints of weakness, reduced temperature and pressure (80 / 40mm.rt.st or less), tachycardia.
The main symptom of vascular insufficiency is a sharp and rapid decline in blood pressure, which provokes the development and all the other symptoms.
Chronic vascular insufficiency often manifests as hypotension. Conventionally, the diagnosis can be made with such symptoms: older children - the systolic pressure below 85 to 30 liters. - Pressure below 105/65, in patients older - below 100/60.
Diagnosis of the disease
At the stage of the examination the doctor, assessing the symptoms of vascular insufficiency, recognizes what form manifest failure, fainting, shock or collapse. The level of pressure is not critical in the diagnosis, should study the history of the disease and find out the reasons for the attack. It is important at the stage of examination to establish what kind of underdeveloped: cardiac or vascular since emergency care for these diseases is different.
If manifested cardio-vascular insufficiency, the patient is forced to sit - lying down his condition is much worse. If it is developed vascular insufficiency, the patient must lie down, because This position is better supplied with blood, his brain. The skin at the failure of the heart - pinkish, vascular - pale, sometimes with a grayish tinge. Also, vascular insufficiency is different in that the venous pressure is increased, the veins on his neck sleeping, do not move the boundaries of the heart, and there is no characteristic of cardiac pathology of pulmonary congestion.
After a preliminary diagnosis, based on the overall clinical picture is made, the patient first aid, if necessary hospitalized prescribe examination of the circulatory system. To this end, it may appoint to pass vessels auscultation, electrocardiography, sphygmography, venography.
Treatment of vascular insufficiency
Medical care for cardiovascular disease should be given immediately.
In all forms of acute circulatory failure patient should remain in supine position (otherwise might be fatal).
If you fainted, you must loosen clothing around the neck of the victim, pat him on the cheeks, chest and face spray with water, allow to smell ammonia, ventilate the room
. This manipulation can be carried out on their own, usually a positive effect comes quickly, the patient regains consciousness
. After be sure to call the doctor who conducted the on-site simple diagnostic tests, impose subcutaneously or intravenously a solution of caffeine with sodium benzoate 10% - 2 ml (at a fixed reduced pressure)
. If it is seen bradycardia, atropine further 0, 1% 0, 5-1ml
. If low blood pressure and bradycardia persist intravenous orciprenaline sulfate 0, 05% - 0 5-1ml or solution adrenaline 0, 1%
. If after 2-3 minutes the patient is still unconscious, pulse, blood pressure, heart tones are not detected, no reflexes begin to introduce these drugs have intracardiac and artificial respiration, heart massage
If after fainting need additional resuscitation, or the cause of syncope remained unclear, or it was the first time, or after the pressure of the patient to bring it into consciousness is reduced, it must be hospitalized for further examination, treatment. In all other cases, hospitalization is not indicated.
Patients with collapse, are in a state of shock, regardless of the reason caused this state, urgently delivered to the hospital where the patient is first aid to maintain pressure and heart activity. If you want to stop the bleeding (if required), other procedures carried out symptomatic therapy, focusing on the circumstances, cause seizures.
With the collapse of cardiogenic (often develops in cardiovascular disease) eliminate tachycardia, atrial flutter cropped: use atropine or izadrin adrenaline or heparin. To restore and maintain the pressure administered subcutaneously mezaton 1%.
If the collapse is caused by infection or contamination, subcutaneously caffeine kokarboksilazu, glucose, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid. Very effective for this type of collapse strychnine 0, 1%. If this therapy is not brought results, mezaton injected under the skin, into a vein prednizolongemisuktsinat again injected sodium chloride 10%.
Prevention of disease
The best prevention of vascular insufficiency is the prevention of diseases that can cause it. It is recommended to monitor the condition of vessels, consume less cholesterol, undergo regular examinations and blood supply of the heart. In some cases gipotonikam prescribed prophylactic course to maintain the pressure medications.