Urinary incontinence in the elderly
Senile incontinence - involuntary release of urine - a very common phenomenon observed in 70% of the women and men of advanced age. The problem of urinary incontinence in the elderly is at the crossroads of several areas of medicine: urology, gynecology and neurology, covers almost all aspects of life of patients, making it difficult for their household, professional and family adaptation.
However, to incontinence should be treated the same as any other disease in which there is no shame. Urinary incontinence in the elderly is a natural manifestation of aging, which can be a cause of deviations and failures in the functioning of certain systems.
Causes and types of urinary incontinence in the elderly
In a normal healthy person urinates about 5-6 times a day, but with age the human body may change, disrupted the process of urination. Forms of this disease are divided into:
- Stress incontinence in the elderly (30-40% of cases), which is caused by weakening of the pelvic floor muscles. Usually it occurs when running, sneezing, laughing, lifting weights, physical activity;
- Urge incontinence (15-20% of cases) associated with increased activity of the bladder. It is provoked by external irritants: the noise of running water, washing dishes, drinking alcohol, cold season, etc .;
- Transient (temporary) incontinence. Older people may be associated with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the bladder (acute cystitis). In women, this type of incontinence may be associated with inflammation of the vagina or urethra, accompanied by the presence of urgency, frequent urination, burning sensation;
- Urinary overflow. This type of incontinence in older men often associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia in history, the narrowing of the urethra, at least - prostate cancer.
In some cases, the cause of urinary incontinence in older women may be hormonal changes the body. Age-related decline in female hormones causes atrophic changes in the cervix and the urethra epithelium.
In addition, urinary incontinence in the elderly may be due to strong stress and diseases of the nervous system (stroke, Parkinson's disease).
The treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly
In order to ascertain the extent and causes of incontinence gather patients complaints, optical inspection, X-ray and ultrasound examination of the bladder, urodynamics, urine culture performed on the microflora. Currently, there are several methods for the treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly:
The essence of the method lies in the non-drug bladder training, aimed at increasing the interval between urination. To do this, patients should contain the natural urge to urinate with a strong contraction of the anal sphincter. Also, patients suffering from involuntary release of urine, it is advisable to carry out training exercises for the pelvic muscles.
Medication Practices is aimed at reducing the contractile activity of the bladder using an antidepressant and antispasmodic drugs.
Despite the fact that conservative treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly achieved good results in some cases it is necessary to carry out surgery. The most common surgery used in the treatment of patients with stress urinary incontinence, rarely - if urgent forms of incontinence.