Ulcerative colitis - a disease that has a chronic course and is characterized by ulcerative inflammatory lesions of the mucous membrane of the colon.
The disease most commonly affects people between the ages of 20 to 40 years. Hardly ever, it does not occur in persons older than 40 or younger than 15 years. The probability of disease ulcerative colitis by 15% higher if close relatives suffer from this disease of the intestine.
The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not currently installed. It is assumed that its development is influenced by genetic, immunologic, infectious agents, and various environmental factors. Most researchers speculated that the disease is an autoimmune or genetically determined. Emotional factors play a significant role in the occurrence of exacerbations of ulcerative colitis, but not by themselves lead to the development of this disease.
Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms
The disease may begin acutely or develop gradually. All the symptoms of ulcerative colitis are caused by chronic ulcerative inflammation in the lining of the colon. These include:
- Mushy stools or diarrhea mixed with mucus in the stool, pus and blood. Often, patients have false and quite painful urge to defecate - tenesmus;
- Pain in the left part of the abdomen. Sometimes they spread throughout the abdomen;
- Increased body temperature;
- weight loss;
- Lack of appetite;
- Varying severity violations of water-electrolyte balance.
By extraintestinal symptoms of ulcerative colitis include:
- Arthritis and spondylitis;
- Blepharitis, conjunctivitis, iritis;
- Cholelithiasis, cholangitis, cirrhosis;
- Erythema, pyoderma gangrenosum;
- Embolism and thrombophlebitis.
Like any other disease, ulcerative colitis can lead to various complications:
- Toxic megacolon. If it is a significant expansion of the lumen of the transverse colon. This complication occurs in 5% of cases and is often fatal;
- Perforation of ulcers of the colon. Observed in 3 - 4% of patients and 70 - 100% of cases leads to their death;
- Stricture of the colon or rectum - narrowing of the intestinal lumen at a certain portion thereof, which violates the passage of stool and can cause intestinal obstruction;
- Intestinal bleeding. This complication occurs in 6% of cases;
- Acute toxic dilation (expansion) of the colon. It is relatively rare;
- Perianal complications, which include cracks, fistulas, paraproctitis. These complications occur in 30% of patients;
- Colon cancer. Patients suffering from ulcerative colitis for more than 10 years have an increased risk of developing malignant tumors of the colon. In each year of the disease increases the risk by 2%.
Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis is based on characteristic clinical symptoms, physical examination data, laboratory diagnosis (tank crop feces, scatological and histological analysis) and instrumental diagnosis (radiological and endoscopic studies).
Ulcerative colitis: Treatment
All patients with newly diagnosed disease or the development of its aggravation must necessarily be hospitalized. Conservative treatment of ulcerative colitis includes the following components:
- Infusion therapy - carried out with the purpose of correction of violations of water-electrolyte balance and detoxification;
- Vitamin therapy;
- Antibiotic therapy (given after bacteriological examination of feces);
- Antidiarrheal therapy;
- Cytotoxic agents;
- Corticosteroid hormones.
It is important to comply with the ulcerative colitis diet with high content of easily digestible protein.
Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis is conducted during the development of complications of the disease (massive bleeding, perforation of the bowel, cancer, intestinal obstruction, and others.).
Ulcerative colitis: Diet
During an exacerbation of the disease need to stick to the most gentle diet. After subsiding acute manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, the patient can be transferred to a less strict diet, which allowed to include not pureed food.
It is important that all meals were not only tasty, but also diverse. Patients are encouraged to steamed or boiled lean meat, pureed oatmeal, eggs, biscuits, the dried white bread, broth hips, some juices (tomato, orange), fruit of ripe berries and fruits. The diet for ulcerative colitis necessarily include walnuts. But fried, salty, fatty or spicy dishes, beans, chocolate, raw fruits and vegetables, mushrooms, beets, apricots, kiwis, plums should be completely excluded.
The diet for ulcerative colitis involves the use of small amounts of food in a relatively short period of time (a fractional power). This is due to the fact that a large amount of food will not be fully digested and assimilated, and in addition, can cause increased diarrhea.
Ulcerative colitis: national treatment
In many cases, doctors recommend their patients not only medical, but also a popular treatment for ulcerative colitis. It is enough to be effective in the treatment of this disease are microclysters with sea buckthorn oil or rose hips. In addition, you can use inside the broth burnet. His take one tablespoon five times a day before meals. The course of treatment for at least a month.
However, national treatment of ulcerative colitis in any case should not completely substitute for traditional medical therapy. This is a serious chronic disease that can lead to life-threatening complications and its treatment have to be carried out only under the guidance of a doctor!