Brief description of the disease
Tularemia - an infectious disease that is characterized by natural foci, causing inflammation in the site of entry of pathogens, regional lymphadenitis, fever and general intoxication. The causative agent of tularemia is able to persist for a long time in adverse conditions, so in the absence of treatment, the disease of the slope to the prolonged duration and escalate into a chronic form.
In places where tularemia is common, vaccination is mandatory for the entire population except for children under 7 years of age and those who have contraindications to the vaccine. The first vaccination is the single, re-vaccination is carried out every 5 years. Regarding the definition of adverse regions. These include areas in which there were cases of infection with tularemia, or areas where tularemia antigens regularly allocated from the objects of the environment. In other cases, vaccination of the population refers only to persons belonging to vulnerable groups.
What happens when the penetration of the pathogen into the body?
The main sources of tularemia are the water rats, mice, rabbits and other rodents. Sick people are not dangerous, that is, if you tularemia diagnosed, symptoms should worry you only. Your family members, colleagues and close friends tularemia is not threatened. Tularemia can catch in those cases where the bacteria is opened to access the inside of the body through scratching and other damage to the skin or mucous membranes. Another common way of infection - drinking water contaminated by rodents.
Immediately after penetration into the human body, the causative agent of tularemia begins to proliferate and, sooner or later, the bacteria spread to all organs and systems. They mainly accumulate in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs. If you begin to develop tularemia, symptoms usually appear within 3-6 days. In patients a sudden fever, aching muscles, nausea, headache. Note that the temperature often reaches critical levels, so the diagnosis of tularemia treatment should begin immediately after the correct diagnosis.
The clinical picture of tularemia
Characteristic features of tularemia depend largely on how it is bacteria entered the body. The most common form of infection - skin tularaemia, which develops as a result of lesions of the skin. Here are the most obvious symptoms of tularemia:
- the appearance of suppurating sores at the site of penetration of bacteria;
- constant itching in the area of damaged skin;
- Swollen lymph nodes (may reach a diameter of 5-9 cm);
- lifmaticheskih nodes abscess with subsequent rupture of the hearth and the release of a thick, creamy pus.
In some cases, pustules resolve on their own, but to wait for "the sea weather," we do not advise you because the process of self-destruction is a very long and sores look quite unpleasant and significantly reduce quality of life. In addition, skin tularemia, which does not constitute a diagnosis of any problems, respond well to treatment. This is another strong argument in favor of not to put off a visit to the doctor.
A few words about other forms of tularemia:
- glazobubonnaya tularemia - develops as a result of penetration of pathogens in the conjunctiva;
- angiozno-bubonic form - is caused by bacteria in the mouth hit man. Symptoms of the disease are similar to angina, but it takes a much harder - with high fever, high fever, and a significant increase in cervical lymph nodes;
- Abdominal tularemia - accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, intestinal bleeding open (do not appear in all patients). In this case, symptoms of infection are similar to appendicitis, making it difficult to correct diagnosis;
- pulmonary form of tularemia - hit due to pathogens in the lungs. The disease runs hard, accompanied by severe pain in the chest. If a patient is diagnosed pulmonary tularemia, vaccination is mandatory stage of treatment, because there is a real possibility of serious complications (abscesses) and irreversible deformation of the lungs.
Treatment of tularemia
Drug of choice for tularemia are antibiotics. The cutaneous form of tularemia is not dangerous to humans and can pass itself, but the specific treatment can speed this process by eliminating human contemplation ugly sores. The pulmonary form is far more dramatic consequences and requires a comprehensive approach with mandatory continuous monitoring of the patient.
Prevention Tularemia is routine vaccination of the population. In the risk group are people living in the flood plains, as well as employees of companies specializing in the procurement of hides muskrats, water rats and rabbits.