The rumor - this is one of those functions, which allows a person to get information about the world. As well as seeing, hearing - a key mechanism for research and knowledge of the world. The human ear - a complex organ, its physiology and structure aimed at the perception of sound waves in the range of 16 Hz-22 kHz.
The mechanism of sound perception by the human ear can be divided into two parts:
- Mechanics - ear canal pinna, auditory ossicles, eardrums;
- electrician - auditory centers of the cerebral cortex, the auditory nerve.
The ear canal to sound reaches the eardrum and then magnified using auditory ossicles, and in the cochlea, the internal sound from the sound vibrations in the air turns to liquid and the oscillation by means of specialized nerve cells is converted into an electrical signal. To fully functioning hearing is required coordinated work of all components of the human ear.
Tubo-otitis - catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the inner ear, which is caused by dysfunction of the auditory tube.
The auditory ossicles are pneumatic cavity (middle ear) in the thickness of the temporal bone, and their full operation pressure in the middle ear shall be the same as in the environment. For this to happen, pneumatic cavities should be reported to the environment, what is happening with the help of special education - tuba auditiva (auditory tube). Eustachian tube opens into the nasopharynx and adults the length of 3, 5 cm, and the newborn - 2 cm. In the event of dysfunction of the auditory tube there is a disease, which is called tubootitis (evstahiitom).
To determine this disease is also used many other names: tubotimpanit, salpingootit, catarrhal otitis media (acute or chronic).
Mostly cause tubootitis becomes infectious process at the mouth of the pipe. Infection misses the pipe from the nasal cavity. For example, acute rhinitis can lead to swelling of the nasal mucosa, including and in the mouths of the auditory tube, causing obstruction of the auditory tube. Tube obstruction, in turn, makes it impossible to pressure equalization in the tympanic cavity, which leads to disruption of the mobility of the auditory ossicles and this characteristic, as nasal ear.
Often, when a cold or strong blowing nose mucus gets into the mouth of the Eustachian tube, which is the cause of tubootitis. Therefore, acute sinusitis and rhinitis is important to blow your nose. When blowing the nose need to open your mouth and pinching one half of the nose.
It happens that the cause tubootitis becomes persistent Eustachian tube dysfunction when vasomotor rhinitis. In such a case could be called tubo-otitis complication vasomotor rhinitis. Such a tubo-otitis is difficult to treat, and it is characterized by the formation of persistent swelling in the area of the rear end of the lower auditory shells spread on the mouth of the auditory tube. Treatment tubootitis in this case it is necessary to combine the treatment of vasomotor rhinitis.
Children tubo-otitis often is bilateral. In adulthood, tubo-otitis often observed with painful side.
The main symptoms are tubootitis hearing loss, the feeling of stuffiness, periodic noise in the ear. Sometimes there syringmus when one hears the echo of his own voice in a sick ear. Similar complaints are typical for acute respiratory infections. The congestion in the ear may occur during atmospheric pressure variations (for example, on the way to the plane). When tubo-otitis pain in the ear can be intense or insignificant, and the general condition of the patient is suffering a little.
When conducting otoscopy patient has a symptom tubootitis as retracted eardrum. Moderately reduced auditory activity (20-30 dB). Also, the symptoms can be attributed tubootitis complaints of patients improve after hearing yawning or swallowing saliva. It is the result of a temporary opening of the lumen of the Eustachian tube.
Children tubo-otitis accompanied by an increase in temperature to 38 degrees and more. There is a fever, feeling stuffy ear, ringing in the ears, hearing loss. The pain may appear as directed, and after some time. On examination of the ear when tubo-otitis in children significantly redness and swelling of the ear. Frequently, the surface of the external auditory meatus bubbles appear.
Tubo-otitis often stale and faintly accompanied by severe symptoms, resulting in patients not inclined to immediately run to the doctor. Naturally, failure detection and treatment tubootitis can lead to various complications, namely, to the Eustachian tube dysfunction reception when the ear cavity is formed and negative pressure begins to accumulate exudate. In turn, it becomes a cause of the adhesion process between the auditory ossicles, there is a persistent hearing loss.
If the cavity of the middle ear for a long time, there is a negative pressure, there is snail irritation, causing degenerative changes appear auditory nerve, there is a sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, exudate fester can occur at any time, resulting in acute purulent otitis media, which, in turn, is fraught with serious complications.
First tubootitis treatment should be aimed at addressing the factors that contribute to the obstruction of the auditory tube. In order to reduce the swelling of the mucous membrane in the ear to the patient appoint vasoconstrictor nose drops: Sanorin, Naphthyzinum, nazivin, tizin et al. Also reduce swelling antihistamine drugs (gismanal, suprastin, Claritin, and others.).
In order to prevent ingress of infectious mucus through the Eustachian tube from the nasopharynx to the tympanic cavity, the patient is taught how to blow his nose, may also appoint a hearing blowing pipes Politzer. A good therapeutic effect produces salpingocatheterism which do after anemizatsii pharyngeal opening. After the catheter is introduced into the auditory tube couple drops of epinephrine 0, 1% hydrocortisone or suspensions.
When treating tubootitis appoint a number of physiotherapy activities: laser therapy on the mouth area of auditory tube, UHF on the nose, UFO, pneumomassage eardrum.
With adequate and timely treatment of acute tubo-otitis cures in a few days. The effectiveness of the treatment of chronic tubootitis depends on the timely elimination of pathologies nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, which causes a constant occurrence of the disease.