Infection conjunctiva caused by microscopic parasites intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis, has been called trachoma. The pathogen is highly variable, it shows the inherent properties, and viruses and bacteria.
Not immediately after the opening of chlamydia was elucidated the relationship between the defeat of the mucous membranes and the presence of the parasite in the human body. But studies have shown that it is the culprit of Chlamydia trachoma at which the mucous membranes and cornea. The disease leads to scarring not only in the conjunctiva, and in cartilage, which in turn leads to blindness.
The source of infection is a sick person with an active form of the disease, but the greatest risk in terms of infection, patients are erased and atypical forms of trachoma, as well as carriers of the virus of trachoma. The disease is transmitted through everyday contact and by contact with objects contaminated with tears or discharge from the eyes.
Trachoma can develop regardless of age and gender, but the disease affects mostly children and women. Currently, the disease is widespread in Africa and Southeast Asia, in other states occurs as isolated cases.
The symptoms of trachoma
From the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease takes place from 7 to 16 days. But most of the first trachoma asymptomatic. The disease is found during routine checkups. Sometimes patients experience the following symptoms of trachoma: the feeling of sand in the eyes, poor discharge mucopurulent character, burning sensation, eye fatigue. At the beginning of the acute symptoms of trachoma are similar to acute conjunctivitis, in which there is swelling of the eyelids, redness of the mucous membranes of the eyes, photophobia, and an increasing number of purulent discharge.
With the introduction of trachoma virus first appears roughness mucosa eyes, then there is a thickening of the cartilage and develops specific ptosis. The patient is always the human eyelid priotpuscheny, a person acquires a sleepy look.
One of the symptoms of trachoma is the formation of follicles around the capsule, inside which is the causative agent. For many years, the virus of trachoma can not be active, but the combination of favorable circumstances the integrity of the capsule is broken and there is a recurrence of the disease.
Stage of trachoma
In the classic form of trachoma proceeds as follows: first, there is a suspicion of a disease, then developing prefollikulyarnaya trachoma, when there is congestion of the mucous membranes eyes, but the follicles are not yet formed, followed by four stages of trachoma itself.
Stage 1 - the conjunctiva edematous and flushed, her nipples clearly visible and enlarged follicles.
Stage 2 - on the background of a pronounced inflammation of the follicles are merged, it becomes evident the disintegration of some of them. It starts scarring. At this stage of trachoma virus - the most active, the patient is infectious to others.
Stage 3 - the inflammation is on the decline, fewer follicles are formed, it begins to dominate the process of scarring. But often at this stage there is an exacerbation of the disease.
Stage 4 - the patient recovers. Signs of inflammation are absent, the conjunctiva century are numerous scars.
The complications of trachoma
Trachoma is a danger not only over the disease, as the development of complications. Some of them are provoked by scar changes, such as fusion of the eyeball conjunctiva, entropion eyelids, dry eye syndrome.
When you join secondary infection of viral or bacterial etiology observed inflammation in the tear ducts and the conjunctiva with the development of diseases such as dacryocystitis, dakrioadenit, acute and chronic conjunctivitis.
But the most serious complication of trachoma - a corneal ulcer, which may be accompanied by perforation, inflammation in the tissues of the eyeball and the iris.
As a rule, complications arise due to incorrect treatment of trachoma, insufficient medication or not completing the course of treatment.
Treatment of trachoma
A single case of the disease particularly at risk for the organs of vision is not, so the treatment of trachoma usually - local. After one or two weeks after starting treatment if necessary follicles autopsied under local anesthesia.
Patients were administered ointments and solutions, which include antibiotics (oletetrin, erythromycin, tetracycline), sulfonamides (etazol) or sulfapiridazin sodium. Pharmaceuticals need to lay dripping or in the conjunctival sac or drip from three to six times per day. A full course of treatment of trachoma can last up to six months.
If the disease is delayed, or show signs of joining a secondary infection in these cases is used in the form of injectable antibiotics and sulfonamides in tablet form. As an added treat trachoma using vitamins, immunomodulators, antihistamines. At the age of deformation and other complications of trachoma treatment operative.
Proper and timely treatment of trachoma avoids the complications of the disease and the subsequent repetitions. In general, the prognosis of trachoma - favorable.